Memory involves the whole body. It’s how the self defies amnesia. Ben Platts-Mills is a writer based in the UK. Between 2013 and 2016, he led Who Are You Now?, a life-writing project that published the stories of brain-injury survivors. His memoir Tell me the Planets was published in 2018. (Michelle’s blog includes her story of traumatic brain injury … multimorbidities then 2017 it was breast cancer so she too wrote a book about her journey through 30+ years. Book: Fortune Favours the Brave by Michelle Marcella Clarke

Memory involves the whole body. It’s how the self defies amnesia | Psyche

Memory involves the whole body. It’s how the self defies amnesia

Photo by JR Korpa/Unsplash

Ben Platts-Mills is a writer based in the UK. Between 2013 and 2016, he led Who Are You Now?, a life-writing project that published the stories of brain-injury survivors. His memoir Tell me the Planets was published in 2018.

Edited by Lucy Foulkes





When you wake up in the morning, how do you know who you are? You might say something like: ‘Because I remember.’ A perfectly good answer, and one with a venerable history. The English philosopher John Locke, for example, considered memory to be the foundation of identity. ‘Consciousness always accompanies thinking,’ he wrote in 1694. ‘And as far as this consciousness can be extended backwards to any past Action or Thought, so far reaches the Identity of that Person.’

For most of us, the question of where identity comes from doesn’t have much bearing on day-to-day life. We don’t have to try to remember who we are; it just happens. But for the growing number of people who survive brain injury every year, it can be a different story. If you survive an accident or an illness that limits your ability to form new memories, leaving you with what’s called ‘anterograde amnesia’, you might be forced to look elsewhere for your sense of self.

Over the past 15 years working at Headway East London, the UK-based brain injury charity, I’ve met many people for whom anterograde amnesia has been the cause of profound existential change. Sadie, a paediatric nurse and mother of two who survived a stroke. Gretha, a city worker who fell ill with an infection. Henry, a greengrocer who suffered heart failure during a violent assault, his brain starved of oxygen. They have all recovered well from a medical perspective but, because of amnesia, they find new conscious memories difficult – or impossible – to form. As a result, they live with great uncertainty and disorientation, not to mention dramatic restrictions on their day-to-day freedoms.

The ability to form new memories underpins almost all aspects of personal and professional responsibility. Sadie, Gretha and Henry all became unemployed after their brain injuries, and lost many of the connections and roles that gave meaning to their pre-amnesia lives. Both Sadie and Gretha were forced to move home to live with elderly parents, Henry to sheltered accommodation. When they aren’t at home or at Headway’s centre, all three of them are shadowed every minute of the day by support workers.

The adjustment to amnesia can take a punishing psychological toll. Sadie, for example, lived with terrible anxiety for several years after her stoke. I remember how, as her frustration and panic peaked, she would fly into rages, often targeted at her blameless support worker. In the absence of any conscious recollection of what had led up to these furies, Sadie was at a loss to explain or contextualise them. It seemed to me that, as in a nightmare, she knew only that she didn’t know what was going on.

This is a frightening lesson about what it means to live without the ability to form the conscious thought-memory described by Locke, what psychologists now term ‘autobiographical’ memory. Recollecting recent events allows a person to orient themselves, ground their sense of identity and maintain a narrative thread that coherently places them in the world.

They have all found new ways to stabilise and feed their sense of self through action

But I want to caution against the idea, intimated by Locke, that the ongoing formation of conscious memory is the same thing as identity. Despite their often-bewildering conditions, every amnesia survivor I know is a distinct, vivid human being – they each have an inimitable character and a strong sense of self. What is it, in the absence of recent memories, that allows them to know who they are?

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Many survivors have significant memories of their pre-injury lives, formed before amnesia set in, and these old memories can help anchor their identities. Sadie’s relationship with her children, for example, is still hugely important to her. But, at the same time, Henry barely ever refers to his life before injury, and some survivors I know prefer to forget who they used to be. Even when pre-injury memories do play a role, I’m convinced that few survivors rely on them alone. Instead, Gretha, Sadie and Henry have all found new ways to stabilise and feed their sense of self through action: through habits and roles that allow them to keep growing and learning.

Since his injury, Henry has built a career as an artist. Though his conscious memories of this inevitably fade, he gravitates to the art studio with an unerring reliability, drawn back there by the positive feelings his work produces in him. A couple of years ago he was asked to design a badge for Headway members to wear at an exhibition opening event. It read ‘ARTIST’. He kept his copy and wears it frequently, though I believe he now has no conscious memory of the event it was made for.

Gretha speaks eloquently about how her own drawing practice, which she started at Headway, helps to orient her: ‘I know my own handiwork. I know who I am. It’s not always strong but it’s always me.’ She also speaks of its positive influence on her mood, an influence that works even in the absence of conscious recollection: ‘I’m happier when I’ve been in the art studio even if I can’t remember I’ve been there. It’s like, even if you haven’t got the Champagne glass in your hand anymore, but you drank the Champagne, do you not feel pissed after?’

When Sadie sings during the music sessions at the centre, demonstrating her astonishing range and word-perfect recall of Motown classics, it can feel strange to know how profound her amnesia is outside this context. I also remember a day when one of the staff at Headway brought in her newborn baby to visit. On seeing them, Sadie dropped out of the excitable, somewhat distractible mode that often occupies her at the centre and calmly took the baby in her arms. She cradled the newborn with assurance while asking the mother acute, sensitive questions about its health and sleeping habits.

Sadie has a rich memory of her life before the injury, including her years as a paediatric nurse. The encounter with the baby surely evoked both the ‘skills’ associated with that time, or what researchers would call ‘procedural’ memories, as well as the explicit, autobiographical ones. But I think the experience was more than the sum of these parts; she hadn’t simply reverted to the past. For a moment, and perhaps for the first time since her injury, Sadie was the most centred person in the room: oriented not just to the child in her arms and to the adults around her but to her own identity. I was watching her in the throes of a whole-person, embodied memory: a moment that unified her historical expertise, unconscious physical habits and consciously remembered experiences with her present intentions, bodily sensations and deeply felt emotion. I only wish I had asked her, in that moment, how she felt.

Amnesia survivors are most themselves in contexts that continually reinforce their embodied tendencies

The observation I’m trying to make is that personhood isn’t the sole property of the mind, or of the brain, or of any one function of these entities. Personhood is a property of the whole body, and the whole body is implicated in how both personhood and an individual person can persist in the face of perpetual forgetting.

It was reading a blog post by the philosopher Mark Rowlands, discussing his idea of ‘Rilkean memory’, that finally gave me language for this hitherto unspoken intuition. Rowlands chose the name because of something that the poet Rainer Maria Rilke wrote in 1910 about how poetry emerges from memories:

… memories themselves are not important. Only when they have changed into our very blood, into glance and gesture, and are nameless, no longer to be distinguished from ourselves – only then can it happen that in some very rare hour the first word of a poem arises in their midst and goes forth from them.

Unlike Lockean autobiographical memory, which is a property of conscious thinking alone, Rilkean memory lives in the action of the whole body, arising from the ‘behavioural disposition’ or ‘enduring mood’ that’s left behind when conscious, narrative memory fades away. When persistent and entrenched enough, Rowlands says, these dispositions and moods become an ‘existential style’, a way of being that can hold a person together in the face of ‘catastrophic memory loss’.

This is what I see in brain injury survivors such as Henry, Gretha and Sadie. When they take part in practices that mean something to them, they become absorbed in living truths that remind them who they are. Amnesia survivors, who have lost the conscious memory-formation so vulnerable to brain injury, are most themselves in contexts that continually reinforce their embodied tendencies, their bodily dispositions and feelings. The places where they are most confident in their identities are the ones in which they are supported not merely to think but to do the things they love. To support these survivors, we must take seriously the idea of whole-body, whole-person memory, and look for ways to reinforce it, wherever we can.

When I wake up each morning, there are things I recognise as part of ‘me’. The aura of dream is replaced almost immediately by a continuity of thought from the previous day. And behind this are layers of familiar sensation: the dryness of my skin; the exaggerated sensitivity of my hands; the way my eyes want to hide from the daylight; the empty feeling of my typical morning hunger; and the bodily restlessness that will soon get me out of bed. Words are there even before I realise it, and I feel a pang of regret as I break the silence. Then I look at my partner, stirring next to me, and recognise another whole domain of identity: the people I share my life with and the feelings they bring to life. It’s a cascade of embodiment, of tendency, of self, that emerges. Doubtless, if I survived a brain injury, some of these things might change or disa

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Augustus John’s cartoon of Galway

Augustus John was one of the great painters of the last century. He knew and painted many of the most famous people of his time, including prominent figures of the Irish Literary Revival such as Yeats, Seán O’Casey, and George Bernard Shaw.

Source: Augustus John’s cartoon of Galway

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Every year more than 800 000 people take their own life and there are many more people who attempt suicide.

Source: Suicide

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Rose… a gift of a rose plant, a little care and another rose came into bloom, and there is another. Sadness yet fond memories and the significance of the name Rose, especially two people named Rose, in my life.

Facebook. I can’t really understand it. A picture appeared “asking me to be a friend” of a very dear friend of mine named Rose. Much illness and an “outside the box” kind of life, I have lost track of good friends, and I do feel ashamed for this. I have photos in prominent places in my home but as I do not use the phone, I have lost track. I then Googled Rose Taylor. It was her obituary from the newspaper where she was a journalist. I have been weeks now hiding the extreme sadness I feel and the regrets too. This piece is my contribution to Rose and as Rose knew my mum very well, I include this piece poetry written by Johnnie Neylon in 1977 about my mum. The poem can be found if you search my blog under Poetry.

But if I’m laid where beauty grows,
My dust may sprout a lip-red Rose,
For in this life some earthly power,
Deprived me of that sweetest flower,
I feel my soul would find repose
If God would let me have that Rose.

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Church Times

Saturday 28 August 2021

Rose Taylor

21 October 2016 AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookShare to TwitterShare to PrintShare to EmailShare to More

Charity: Rose Taylor (third from right) interviewing leprosy-affected people in Mozambique

Zoë Bunter writes:

ROSE TAYLOR, who died on 3 October, aged 62, after a short illness, spent her last years working with the Leprosy Mission England and Wales in Peterborough.

She was born in Mumbai and came to the UK in 1972. Her first job in journalism was on the Saffron Walden Reporter. From there, she went on to hold senior posts in Royston, on the Cambridge News, and the Gloucester Echo, before joining the Peterborough Evening Telegraph in 2005, where she was a very successful news editor.

After a stint at the Aberdeen Press and Journal, Rose returned to Peterborough, working as a reporter for various local newspapers, before taking a post at the University of Bedfordshire. She was a committed journalist, who was also a great supporter of local community groups and charitable causes.

Most recently, Rose’s considerable talents were put to great use at the Leprosy Mission. Her last work assignment was a trip to the Cabo Delgado region of Mozambique, one of the most leprosy-affected parts of the country.

Rose spent eight days in Mozambique, meeting people affected by leprosy, and visiting projects which had been funded through the charity’s “Feet First” campaign in 2015. On her trip, Rose met some of the people who had been provided with protective sandals through Feet First.

Rose’s trip to Mozambique touched her deeply. Before she died, she said: “I am so pleased to have had the chance to see the work of the Mission for myself. It made all the work I have been doing back in Peterborough much more real. I am so pleased I had the chance to meet the people we are helping. It has been a real blessing.”

Michelle adds….I needed a place to stay, after my marriage ended; it was Rose who said come to Saffron Walden and sleep on my couch, which I did for many weeks, if not months. Many times over the years Rose came to Ireland and she would always prepare an Indian meal, lots of preparation time but absolutely superb.


Tributes to former PT news editor Rose

Tributes have been paid to former Peterborough Telegraph News Editor Rose Taylor who died this week.

By The NewsroomMonday, 10th October 2016, 4:20 pmUpdated Tuesday, 25th October 2016, 5:53 pm

Rose with colleagues Kerry Coupe and Rachel Pishhorn during her time at the Mercury.

Rose, 62, died at Thorpe Hall Hospice on Monday (October 3) after a short battle with cancer surrounded by family and friends including her son Chris.

Rose was known throughout the city after joining the then Peterborough Evening Telegraph in 2005 and fast building a reputation as a committed journalist who was also a great supporter of local community groups and charitable causes.

Peterbrough Telegraph Editor Mark Edwards said: “Rose was not just an immensely respected colleague she was a great personal friend. Sponsored Links Recommended by For every purchase of a Double Serum Eye, get your anti-age cream trial a mini mascara. Read More Clarins The Most Successful Solicitors in Ireland – See The List Solicitors | Sponsored Listings

Rose Taylor

“She was absolutely passionate about the paper, local journalism and, in particular, supporting campaigns and good causes.

“She was so well known in many communities and organisations across the city and would frequently give many hours of her own time to support events. She was liked and respected in equal measure by many. many people.

“Her great strength was developing young reporters and there are many careers that got of to a great start thanks to her support and advice.”

Rose was born in Mumbai and came to the UK in 1972. Her first job in journalism was on the Saffron Walden Reporter and from there she went on to hold senior roles in Royston, on the Cambridge News and the Gloucester Echo before she came to Peterborough in 2005.

Rose Taylor

After a successful stint as news editor she took up a content management role on the Aberdeen Press and Journal before returning to Peterborough. She edited the Cambridge First weekly newspaper before becoming a communicationes executive at Bedford University and latterly taking on a role at the Leprosy Mission based in Orton Goldhay. Rose also worked at the Stamford Mercury, Rutland Times and Bourne Local.

North West Cambs MP Shailesh Vara said: “It’s a great loss for all of us. Rose was a good soul in every sense of the word and a fine journalist who was passionate about Peterborough.”

Peterborough MP Stewart Jackson said: “ I was very sad to learn of death of Rose.

“She was warm, kind, an old school professional journalist.”

A funeral service will be held at St Peter & All Souls Church, Geneva Street, Peterborough on Thursday, October 13 at 10.30am, followed by a reception in the parish hall.

Donations in lieu of flowers should be made to the Leprosy Mission of England and Wales via its website:

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Traumatic Brain Injury, Bipolar. Yes I tick the boxes. This article may be of interest. 2017 after multimorbidities it was breast cancer so I decided to write a book, details below. It may help others. Aphantasia and spatial control caught my attention and this article below by John Hricak ticks many boxes for me also.



Fortune Favours the Brave by Michelle Marcella Clarke

TBI is known as the “silent epidemic” …. it is a life lived in a kind of secrecy and fear with many anxieties too from agoraphobia to social anxiety to obsessive fears.


Found this article in my files August 24th 2021, it is from 2015; no recall but it is of interest now but is immediately forgotten


Exploring the link between mental disorder, traumatic brain injury

John Hricak recalled one morning when he looked in the mirror and noticed how much he had changed. “I remember thinking, ‘Gosh, John, you’ve lost weight,'” said Hricak of Grand Forks. It was the first memory he had in the months following the Feb… Written By: Pamela D. Knudson | 3:46 pm, Jan. 31, 2015

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John Hricak recalled one morning when he looked in the mirror and noticed how much he had changed.

“I remember thinking, ‘Gosh, John, you’ve lost weight,'” said Hricak of Grand Forks.

It was the first memory he had in the months following the February 2005 traffic accident when his truck was hit by a semi on I-29 near the exit to Thompson, N.D. The accident put him in the hospital and on a long path to recovery.

“I weighed 147 pounds,” he said. “I weighed 193 the day before the accident.”

The brain injury he sustained in that accident erased part of his memory.

“I don’t remember the accident or rehab,” he said. “I don’t remember anything.”

He learned from others what had happened to him, including the fact that just after the accident a nurse told his daughter-in-law not to leave the hospital because he was not expected to live.

He was in a coma, tethered to breathing and feeding tubes. Doctors drained excess fluid from his brain to relieve pressure. He lost the use of his left eye and ear.

About 5,000 Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 13,000 North Dakotans are dealing with the consequences of TBI, some of which, research shows, include the risk of developing mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Hricak returned to his job with the U.S. Border Patrol in Grand Forks in June 2005.

In the years following the accident, he’s had repeated memory lapses.

For example, he spent three days helping build a fence at his son’s home and took a trip to visit relatives out of state, but has no recollection of either event.

He keeps track of appointments in a calendar.

“Sometimes it is frustrating,” he said, but the challenges that other TBI survivors face put things into perspective.

Asked whether he has suffered any mental disorders, such as depression, in the years since the accident, Hricak said, “I’m sure I did. How could you not? If you lose an eye and an ear, it’s going to affect you.”

“I don’t know a person who doesn’t have a mental challenge, one way or another,” he said.

He takes a prescription medication to stabilize his moods.

Surprising correlation

Researchers say that trauma to the head can significantly increase one’s risk of developing certain mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder – in some cases by more than 400 percent.

Danish scientist Dr. Sonja Orlovska, of the Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, said although she expected to see a correlation between head injury and the subsequent risk of mental illness, she was “quite surprised” by findings of a study she led.

The correlation “was stronger than I expected,” she said in a article in January 2014.

In the largest study of its kind, researchers followed a pool of Danes who had been admitted to the hospital with a head injury.

Orlovska and her colleagues looked for diagnoses of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and “organic mental disorders,” a form of decreased mental function due to a medical or physical disease, rather than a psychiatric illness.

Comparing the injured people’s risk of developing disorders with the rest of the population, they found that those with head injuries were:

• 65 percent more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.

• 59 percent more likely to develop a depression.

• 28 percent more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

• 439 percent more likely to suffer from organic mental disorders.

The greatest risk of developing a mental disorder is in the first year after suffering head trauma, they reported, but even after 15 years there was a significantly increased risk.

Head injury between the ages of 11 and 15 was the strongest predictor for subsequent development of schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder.

‘Significant overlap’

“There is a significant overlap between those who have mental health disorders and TBI, but we don’t know causality,” said Rebecca Quinn, who works with the North Dakota Brain Injury Network as program director with the Center for Rural Health at UND.

Trauma to the brain “is so difficult to work with,” Quinn said. “We don’t have a complete understanding of how the brain works.”

Certain mental disorders are thought to be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, so damage to brain structures that carry those chemicals could play a part in the development of mental disorders.

“We don’t have a grasp on that,” she said. “You can have trauma that’s psychological, physical, genetic or (related to toxin) exposure. We don’t know how they interconnect.”

In her work with people who’ve suffered TBI, she said, “I have brain-injured individuals who don’t go on to develop mental health disorders and those who do. We don’t have enough knowledge to rule anything out.”

Although there is no definite explanation to the correlation between head injuries and the subsequent development of mental disorders, Orlovska and her colleagues point to possible explanations such as trauma-induced inflammation and disruption in the balance of chemicals the brain uses to communicate between various parts of the nervous system.

Head injuries that occur in connection with a traumatic accident may produce a psychological and emotional reaction that triggers the mental disorder, experts say. The loss of bodily functions or abilities after an accident with head trauma may also affect the psyche so that the person develops a mental disorder.

TBI affects thousands

“About 13,000 North Dakotans are living with consequences of TBI, including injuries resulting from sports, falls and motor vehicles crashes,” Quinn said.

“Falls are the most common injury that causes TBI across the board,” she said. “Vehicle crashes are the cause of more severe injury.”

Slips on ice, childhood falls on the playground, and falls among construction and oil industry workers are examples of accidents that can result in significant injury, she said. “You don’t realize how something little can lead to something worse,” she said.

Injury to the brain is much different from injury to other parts of the body, Quinn said.

An injury such as a broken limb or punctured lung limits the use of that specific part, but body structures heal and regain their previous function.

“The brain controls everything we do, so a brain injury can impact everything we do,” she said.

Consequences of a brain injury can affect all aspects of one’s life, including personality, according to

Quinn said she’s never experienced a time when presenting on brain injuries that someone doesn’t come up afterward to share their experience. She said so many people have been impacted and never really know if a past head trauma may have been a factor.

“Some will say (of their child’s behavior), ‘I thought it was a typical teenage issue, but now we’re wondering …,'” she said.

Brain injuries do not heal like other injuries, according to No two brain injuries are alike and the consequences of two similar injuries may be very different. Symptoms may appear right away or may not be present for days or weeks after the injury.

“Some symptoms – like dizziness, loss of concentration, confusion, slurred speech or vision disturbances – can resolve themselves,” she said. But later symptoms such as migraine headaches, memory problems and sleep disturbances can occur.

“The brain is so mysterious it’s difficult to predict how much they will recover over time,” she said. “Some are told they’d never walk again, and now they’re walking.”

Higher incidence

North Dakota has taken steps to learn more about how brain injuries affect its citizens, Quinn said.

In 2011, the state human services department launched a screening program that found 30 percent of individuals who access substance abuse and mental health services have a history of TBI, she said. That’s pretty consistent with other studies conducted across the country, she added.

Studies of prison inmates in Minnesota and elsewhere “have put their history of TBI above about 60 or 70 percent,” she said, “which leads researchers to ask ‘why do so many people with TBI end up in prison?'”

Minnesota has a higher recidivism, or rate of repeat criminal behavior, among those affected by TBI, she said. It is considering possible ways to rehabilitate prisoners before they leave prison to reduce their chances of returning.

TBI affects skills such as decision-making ability, memory (to remember outcomes of prior actions), impulse control and the ability to weigh consequences.

TBI is “significantly higher” among the homeless and substance-abuse populations, she said. “The skill set required to stay out of these populations isn’t there,” she said.


Hricak, who took disability retirement in 2008 at age 57, is active in the local TBI support group that meets monthly at Sharon Lutheran Church in Grand Forks.

The group, which is affiliated with the North Dakota Brain Injury Network, draws people who range in age from 11 to 68.

“We have hard times remembering, we have hard times understanding,” he said. “We have emotional issues that are not under control – like ‘normal’ people.

“We have periods of depression like everyone else. It may be worse than others, but it’s not necessarily always that way.”

The goal of the support group is “to have a place where they can be themselves,” he said.

“Like everybody else, we have good days and bad days. (People with TBI) may not be able to do things that others think they should.”

Asked if he ever questioned why he was the victim of such a traumatic accident, he said, “Maybe at first. But it is what it is. I can’t change it, so I really don’t worry about it.”

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War futile war. Middle East. Exodus in shame from Afghanistan. This letter to Dick Cheney by a dying man is worth reading now. The letter was written in 2004.

Amy Lee on Evanescence Early Days and Everything Hard Rock | The RS Interview ×

Tomas Young, Dying Iraq War Veteran, Writes Last Letter to Bush and Cheney

‘My day of reckoning is upon me. Yours will come,’ he warns

By Rolling Stone

tomas young veteran letter claudia cueller truthdig

Tomas Young joined the Army two days after September 11, 2001 and was shot and paralyzed after serving only five days in Iraq in 2004. He was the subject of the powerful 2007 documentary Body of War – with a soundtrack that included Pearl Jam, Rage Against the Machine and Bruce Springsteen – and since then, his health has worsened and he is currently under hospice care. On the 10th anniversary of the invasion of Iraq, Young wrote a personal, heartbreaking letter to George W. Bush and Dick Cheney. It was originally posted on; Young has given us permission to reprint it here.


The Last Letter

To: George W. Bush and Dick Cheney
From: Tomas Young

I write this letter on the 10th anniversary of the Iraq War on behalf of my fellow Iraq War veterans. I write this letter on behalf of the 4,488 soldiers and Marines who died in Iraq. I write this letter on behalf of the hundreds of thousands of veterans who have been wounded and on behalf of those whose wounds, physical and psychological, have destroyed their lives. I am one of those gravely wounded. I was paralyzed in an insurgent ambush in 2004 in Sadr City. My life is coming to an end. I am living under hospice care.

I write this letter on behalf of husbands and wives who have lost spouses, on behalf of children who have lost a parent, on behalf of the fathers and mothers who have lost sons and daughters and on behalf of those who care for the many thousands of my fellow veterans who have brain injuries. I write this letter on behalf of those veterans whose trauma and self-revulsion for what they have witnessed, endured and done in Iraq have led to suicide and on behalf of the active-duty soldiers and Marines who commit, on average, a suicide a day. I write this letter on behalf of the some one million Iraqi dead and on behalf of the countless Iraqi wounded. I write this letter on behalf of us allthe human detritus your war has left behind, those who will spend their lives in unending pain and grief.

9/11: A Pivot Upon Which We View Our Future

I write this letter, my last letter, to you, Mr. Bush and Mr. Cheney. I write not because I think you grasp the terrible human and moral consequences of your lies, manipulation and thirst for wealth and power. I write this letter because, before my own death, I want to make it clear that I, and hundreds of thousands of my fellow veterans, along with millions of my fellow citizens, along with hundreds of millions more in Iraq and the Middle East, know fully who you are and what you have done. You may evade justice but in our eyes you are each guilty of egregious war crimes, of plunder and, finally, of murder, including the murder of thousands of young Americans – my fellow veterans – whose future you stole.

Your positions of authority, your millions of dollars of personal wealth, your public relations consultants, your privilege and your power cannot mask the hollowness of your character. You sent us to fight and die in Iraq after you, Mr. Cheney, dodged the draft in Vietnam, and you, Mr. Bush, went AWOL from your National Guard unit. Your cowardice and selfishness were established decades ago. You were not willing to risk yourselves for our nation but you sent hundreds of thousands of young men and women to be sacrificed in a senseless war with no more thought than it takes to put out the garbage.

I joined the Army two days after the 9/11 attacks. I joined the Army because our country had been attacked. I wanted to strike back at those who had killed some 3,000 of my fellow citizens. I did not join the Army to go to Iraq, a country that had no part in the September 2001 attacks and did not pose a threat to its neighbors, much less to the United States. I did not join the Army to “liberate” Iraqis or to shut down mythical weapons-of-mass-destruction facilities or to implant what you cynically called “democracy” in Baghdad and the Middle East. I did not join the Army to rebuild Iraq, which at the time you told us could be paid for by Iraq’s oil revenues. Instead, this war has cost the United States over $3 trillion. I especially did not join the Army to carry out pre-emptive war. Pre-emptive war is illegal under international law. And as a soldier in Iraq I was, I now know, abetting your idiocy and your crimes. The Iraq War is the largest strategic blunder in U.S. history. It obliterated the balance of power in the Middle East. It installed a corrupt and brutal pro-Iranian government in Baghdad, one cemented in power through the use of torture, death squads and terror. And it has left Iran as the dominant force in the region. On every level – moral, strategic, military and economic – Iraq was a failure. And it was you, Mr. Bush and Mr. Cheney, who started this war. It is you who should pay the consequences.

I would not be writing this letter if I had been wounded fighting in Afghanistan against those forces that carried out the attacks of 9/11. Had I been wounded there I would still be miserable because of my physical deterioration and imminent death, but I would at least have the comfort of knowing that my injuries were a consequence of my own decision to defend the country I love. I would not have to lie in my bed, my body filled with painkillers, my life ebbing away, and deal with the fact that hundreds of thousands of human beings, including children, including myself, were sacrificed by you for little more than the greed of oil companies, for your alliance with the oil sheiks in Saudi Arabia, and your insane visions of empire.

I have, like many other disabled veterans, suffered from the inadequate and often inept care provided by the Veterans Administration. I have, like many other disabled veterans, come to realize that our mental and physical wounds are of no interest to you, perhaps of no interest to any politician. We were used. We were betrayed. And we have been abandoned. You, Mr. Bush, make much pretense of being a Christian. But isn’t lying a sin? Isn’t murder a sin? Aren’t theft and selfish ambition sins? I am not a Christian. But I believe in the Christian ideal. I believe that what you do to the least of your brothers you finally do to yourself, to your own soul.

My day of reckoning is upon me. Yours will come. I hope you will be put on trial. But mostly I hope, for your sakes, that you find the moral courage to face what you have done to me and to many, many others who deserved to live. I hope that before your time on earth ends, as mine is now ending, you will find the strength of character to stand before the American public and the world, and in particular the Iraqi people, and beg for forgiveness.

In This Article: George W. Bush, Iraq War, Tomas Young

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Vaccine Equity…Anti-Vaxxers…but let us be alert to Vaccine Apartheid? There is gross discrimination and COVID-19 has to be global in effect otherwise it will re-morph through replication as a stronger variant with the objective of being a “breakthrough the vaccine” modus operandi.

For more see link above

Statistics and Research

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations


29.7% of the world population has received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine,

and 15.3% is fully vaccinated.

4.4 billion doses have been administered globally,

and 40.04 million are now administered each day.

Only 1.1% of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose.

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Ireland population 5+ mn; we thankfully are vaccine receptive and having started as the tortoise we are now reaching herd immunity status 80-90% But we must not forget that the Pandemic is global and we are all interconnected. There is massive Vaccine Apartheid with some heavily populated, impoverished, corrupt, war-torn countries who have little access to vaccine and it is here variants will outsmart us. Recommend this article about Lambda (Source – Australia news site) variant in Peru (population 32 mn). It is in “of interest” category to WHO so the world needs to be concerned: Like Delta it has greater transmissability and other features of Alpha. What we need to be prepared for is a variant which is “Vaccine Resistant”. Dr Mike Ryan speaking to Maria’s son. “Making the world fairer”. We are slow to share. Share data, vaccines, technology, solidarity and so much more. — Australia’s leading news site> — Australia’s leading news site

Lambda Covid-19 variant may be more transmissible and more resistant to vaccines

It is thought to be more transmissible and potentially more vaccine-resistant than other Covid-19 strains. Move over Delta, Lambda is here.

Marion Langfordmazlangford–

August 1, 2021 4:21pm

As the world battles against the Delta variant of Covid-19, it’s a lesser-known mutation that has experts worried.

Lambda (also known as variant C37) was first seen in Peru in August 2020. Since then, it has spread to 29 countries, mainly in South America.

Australia has already seen a case of it in NSW hotel quarantine in April, though it didn’t spread into the community.

While research into the strain is still in its early days, data so far suggests a couple of key features of the variant which have experts worried.

Like the Delta variant, it is highly transmissible and it may be able to dodge vaccines more readily than the original version of the virus.

The situation in Peru

Peru is a country in political upheaval, which is fighting a losing battle against the coronavirus pandemic.

In a nation of just over 32 million people, official records have Covid-19 deaths at 180,000. It gives the country the highest Covid death rate per head of population in the world.

However, the criteria for determining a death from coronavirus has changed, bringing that figure up.

RELATED: Delta cases surge worldwide

A coffin of a Covid-19 victim is disinfected in Piura, Peru. Picture: Sebastian Enriquez/AFP

A coffin of a Covid-19 victim is disinfected in Piura, Peru. Picture: Sebastian Enriquez/AFPSource:AFP

Previously, a Covid death was only recorded with a positive test. But in a country with a large number of people living in poverty and with a stretched health system, this led to a lot of under-reporting.

Looking at the increase of deaths year on year, there were 150 per cent more deaths than expected, despite this figure not being reflected in coronavirus statistics.

So the government changed the criteria, counting a Covid-19 death as any which took place within 60 days of a positive test, or if coronavirus was suspected as the reason for death, thus raising the figures to what is probably a more realistic number.

Meanwhile, the country has just sworn in a new left-wing president, Pedro Castillo, after a nailbiting election with the slimmest of margins.

His campaign centred on distributing wealth more evenly, winning him votes from the rural regions which are typically very poor.

Early in the pandemic, Peru was quick to bring in restrictions to help curb the spread of the virus. But case numbers continued to rise.

Only 38 per cent of Peruvians have a bank account, so government assistance didn’t get to the poorest people, meaning they had to continue going out to work.

And more than 40 per cent of people don’t have a fridge. So they had to continue going to shops to buy their food as they had no way to stock up.

RELATED: Google, Facebook mandate vaccines for employees

A Peruvian health worker takes a test on a man in his house at El Agustino district in Lima, as the country performs house-to-house Covid-19 testing. Picture: Ernesto Benavides/AFP

A Peruvian health worker takes a test on a man in his house at El Agustino district in Lima, as the country performs house-to-house Covid-19 testing. Picture: Ernesto Benavides/AFPSource:AFP

Lambda becomes dominant strain

In a country that was already in crisis, with a healthcare system not able to cope, Lambda has now taken hold.

It accounts for more than 80 per cent of all Covid-19 cases in Peru, according to its National Institute of Health.

Dr Pablo Tsukayama, a molecular microbiologist at Cayetano Heredia University, Lima, said indications are that Lambda is more transmissible.

“When we found it, it did not attract much attention,” he told Al Jazeera.

“But … by March, it was in 50 per cent of the samples in Lima. By April, it was in 80 per cent of the samples in Peru,” he said.

“That jump from one to 50 per cent is an early indicator of a more transmissible variant.”

In June, Lambda was added to the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) list of variants of interest. WHO defines a variant of interest as one which has genetic changes that affect things such as transmissibility, disease severity and immune escape, and has been shown to be responsible for significant community transmission in multiple countries.

So far, Lambda has reached 29 countries around the world.

RELATED: Pfizer effectiveness weakens over time

A batch of 300,000 doses of Chinese Sinopharm laboratory vaccines arrive in Lima, Peru. Picture: AFP/Peruvian Presidency/Luis Iparraguire

A batch of 300,000 doses of Chinese Sinopharm laboratory vaccines arrive in Lima, Peru. Picture: AFP/Peruvian Presidency/Luis IparraguireSource:AFP

In an article for The Conversation, Adam Taylor of the Menzies Health Institute at Queensland’s Griffith University wrote that the exact threat Lamda poses is still unknown.

“At this stage more research is required to say for certain how its mutations impact transmission, its ability to evade protection from vaccines, and the severity of disease,” he said.

“Preliminary evidence suggests Lambda has an easier time infecting our cells and is a bit better at dodging our immune systems. But vaccines should still do a good job against it.”

It’s that last point that the world is on edge about.

Will vaccines work against Lambda?

Lambda has a few defining mutations to the spike protein, according to Dr Taylor. One mutation is associated with reduced susceptibility to virus-generated antibodies.

“This means antibodies generated from being infected with the original Wuhan strain of Covid aren’t quite as effective at neutralising Lambda,” he wrote in The Conversation.

Another mutation is similar to the Delta variant.

“This mutation in Delta not only increases the ability of the virus to infect cells, but also promotes immune escape meaning the antibodies vaccines generate are less likely to recognise it,” Dr Taylor wrote.

It is this mutation, according to virologist Ricardo Soto-Rifo of Chile’s Institute of Biomedical Sciences, which may be the reason for the strain’s high infection rate. In research not yet peer-reviewed, Dr Soto-Rifo assessed the Chinese CoronaVac vaccine on Lambda. It showed the variant could neutralise the antibodies created by the vaccine.

RELATED: Blood clot risk higher in Covid-19 patients

A doctor prepares a vaccination to give to a health worker in February, 2021 in Lima, Peru. Picture: Raul Sifuentes/Getty Images

A doctor prepares a vaccination to give to a health worker in February, 2021 in Lima, Peru. Picture: Raul Sifuentes/Getty ImagesSource:Getty Images

“These results were expected,” Dr Soto-Rifo told Al Jazeera. “The virus has changed and that can make the vaccine not as efficient as it was with the original virus, but that doesn’t mean the vaccine doesn’t work any more.”

In another non-peer-reviewed study, Nathaniel Landau, a microbiologist at the NYU Grossman School of Medicine, showed a lab-made Lambda-like virus was twice as infectious as the original coronavirus.

Despite the results, he still advised vaccines were imperative.

“The key is that [Delta and Lambda are] both highly transmissible viruses. But if you get the vaccine, you’re most likely going to be protected,” Dr Landau told National Geographic. “And the rate of infection with these viruses is going to go down in areas where people get the vaccine,” he said.

“We believe that, at least for the mRNA vaccines – Moderna and Pfizer – that those vaccines will protect very well against Lambda, in the same way that they protect against the Delta virus.

“Even though some of the antibody no longer works against the variants, it’s still enough that they will fight the virus and get rid of it pretty well.”

Highly recommend this link to WHO:

Live Q&A on COVID-19 with Dr Mike Ryan and Dr Maria Van Kerkhove – YouTube

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