The War Over Genetic Privacy Is Just Beginning published Astute. Mental illness within families often is about secrecy but this takes it to a different more intrusive and controversial level, summed up as “Guilt by Association”

June 16, 2021

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The War Over Genetic Privacy Is Just Beginning

June 16, 2021

When you upload your DNA, you’re potentially becoming a genetic informant on the rest of your family.”— Law professor Elizabeth Joh

“Guilt by association” has taken on new connotations in the technological age.

All of those fascinating, genealogical searches that allow you to trace your family tree by way of a DNA sample can now be used against you and those you love.

As of 2019, more than 26 million people had added their DNA to ancestry databases. It’s estimated those databases could top 100 million profiles within the year, thanks to the aggressive marketing of companies such as Ancestry and 23andMe.

It’s a tempting proposition: provide some mega-corporation with a spit sample or a cheek swab, and in return, you get to learn everything about who you are, where you came from, and who is part of your extended your family.

The possibilities are endless.

You could be the fourth cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II of England. Or the illegitimate grandchild of an oil tycoon. Or the sibling of a serial killer.

Without even realizing it, by submitting your DNA to an ancestry database, you’re giving the police access to the genetic makeup, relationships and health profiles of every relative—past, present and future—in your family, whether or not they ever agreed to be part of such a database.

After all, a DNA print reveals everything about “who we are, where we come from, and who we will be.”

It’s what police like to refer to a “modern fingerprint.”

Whereas fingerprint technology created a watershed moment for police in their ability to “crack” a case, DNA technology is now being hailed by law enforcement agencies as the magic bullet in crime solving.

Indeed, police have begun using ancestry databases to solve cold cases that have remained unsolved for decades.

For instance, in 2018, former police officer Joseph DeAngelo was flagged as the notorious “Golden State Killer” through the use of genetic genealogy, which allows police to match up an unknown suspect’s crime scene DNA with that of any family members in a genealogy database. Police were able to identify DeAngelo using the DNA of a distant cousin found in a public DNA database. Once police narrowed the suspect list to DeAngelo, they tracked him—snatched up a tissue he had tossed in a trash can—and used his DNA on the tissue to connect him to a rash of rapes and murders from the 1970s and ‘80s.

Although DeAngelo was the first public arrest made using forensic genealogy, police have identified more than 150 suspects since then. Most recently, police relied on genetic genealogy to nab the killer of a 15-year-old girl who was stabbed to death nearly 50 years ago.

Who wouldn’t want to get psychopaths and serial rapists off the streets and safely behind bars, right? At least, that’s the argument being used by law enforcement to support their unrestricted access to these genealogy databases.

“In the interest of public safety, don’t you want to make it easy for people to be caught? Police really want to do their job. They’re not after you. They just want to make you safe,” insists Colleen Fitzpatrick, a co-founder of the DNA Doe Project, which identifies unknown bodies and helps find suspects in old crimes.

Except it’s not just psychopaths and serial rapists who get caught up in the investigative dragnet.

Anyone who comes up as a possible DNA match—including distant family members—suddenly becomes part of a circle of suspects that must be tracked, investigated and ruled out.

Although a number of states had forbidden police from using government databases to track family members of suspects, the genealogy websites provided a loophole that proved irresistible to law enforcement.

Hoping to close that loophole, a few states have started introducing legislation to restrict when and how police use these genealogical databases, with Maryland requiring that they can only be used for serious violent crimes such as murder and rape, only after they exhaust other investigatory methods, and only under the supervision of a judge.

Yet the debate over genetic privacy—and when one’s DNA becomes a public commodity outside the protection of the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on warrantless searches and seizures—is really only beginning.

Certainly, it’s just a matter of time before the government gets hold of our DNA, either through mandatory programs carried out in connection with law enforcement and corporate America, by warrantlessly accessing our familial DNA shared with genealogical services such as Ancestry and 23andMe, or through the collection of our “shed” or “touch” DNA.

According to research published in the journal Science, more than 60 percent of Americans who have some European ancestry can be identified using DNA databases, even if they have not submitted their own DNA. According to law professor Natalie Ram, one genealogy profile can lead to as many as 300 other people.

That’s just on the commercial side.

All 50 states now maintain their own DNA databases, although the protocols for collection differ from state to state. Increasingly, many of the data from local databanks are being uploaded to CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), the FBI’s massive DNA database, which has become a de facto way to identify and track the American people from birth to death.

Even hospitals have gotten in on the game by taking and storing newborn babies’ DNA, often without their parents’ knowledge or consent. It’s part of the government’s mandatory genetic screening of newborns. In many states, the DNA is stored indefinitely.

What this means for those being born today is inclusion in a government database that contains intimate information about who they are, their ancestry, and what awaits them in the future, including their inclinations to be followers, leaders or troublemakers.

Get ready, folks, because the government— helped along by Congress (which adopted legislation allowing police to collect and test DNA immediately following arrests), President Trump (who signed the Rapid DNA Act into law), the courts (which have ruled that police can routinely take DNA samples from people who are arrested but not yet convicted of a crime), and local police agencies (which are chomping at the bit to acquire this new crime-fighting gadget)—has embarked on a diabolical campaign to create a nation of suspects predicated on a massive national DNA database.

Referred to as “magic boxes,” Rapid DNA machines—portable, about the size of a desktop printer, highly unregulated, far from fool-proof, and so fast that they can produce DNA profiles in less than two hours—allow police to go on fishing expeditions for any hint of possible misconduct using DNA samples.

Journalist Heather Murphy explains: “As police agencies build out their local DNA databases, they are collecting DNA not only from people who have been charged with major crimes but also, increasingly, from people who are merely deemed suspicious, permanently linking their genetic identities to criminal databases.”

The ramifications of these DNA databases are far-reaching.

At a minimum, they will do away with any semblance of privacy or anonymity. The lucrative possibilities for hackers and commercial entities looking to profit off one’s biological record are endless.

Moreover, while much of the public debate, legislative efforts and legal challenges in recent years have focused on the protocols surrounding when police can legally collect a suspect’s DNA (with or without a search warrant and whether upon arrest or conviction), the question of how to handle “shed” or “touch” DNA has largely slipped through without much debate or opposition.

As scientist Leslie A. Pray notes:

We all shed DNA, leaving traces of our identity practically everywhere we go. Forensic scientists use DNA left behind on cigarette butts, phones, handles, keyboards, cups, and numerous other objects, not to mention the genetic content found in drops of bodily fluid, like blood and semen. In fact, the garbage you leave for curbside pickup is a potential gold mine of this sort of material. All of this shed or so-called abandoned DNA is free for the taking by local police investigators hoping to crack unsolvable cases. Or, if the future scenario depicted at the beginning of this article is any indication, shed DNA is also free for inclusion in a secret universal DNA databank.

What this means is that if you have the misfortune to leave your DNA traces anywhere a crime has been committed, you’ve already got a file somewhere in some state or federal database—albeit it may be a file without a name. As Heather Murphy warns in the New York Times: “The science-fiction future, in which police can swiftly identify robbers and murderers from discarded soda cans and cigarette butts, has arrived…  Genetic fingerprinting is set to become as routine as the old-fashioned kind.

Even old samples taken from crime scenes and “cold” cases are being unearthed and mined for their DNA profiles.

Today, helped along by robotics and automation, DNA processing, analysis and reporting takes far less time and can bring forth all manner of information, right down to a person’s eye color and relatives. Incredibly, one company specializes in creating “mug shots” for police based on DNA samples from unknown “suspects” which are then compared to individuals with similar genetic profiles.

If you haven’t yet connected the dots, let me point the way.

Having already used surveillance technology to render the entire American populace potential suspects, DNA technology in the hands of government will complete our transition to a suspect society in which we are all merely waiting to be matched up with a crime.

No longer can we consider ourselves innocent until proven guilty.

Now we are all suspects in a DNA lineup until circumstances and science say otherwise.

Suspect Society, meet the American police state.

Every dystopian sci-fi film we’ve ever seen is suddenly converging into this present moment in a dangerous trifecta between science, technology and a government that wants to be all-seeing, all-knowing and all-powerful.

By tapping into your phone lines and cell phone communications, the government knows what you say. By uploading all of your emails, opening your mail, and reading your Facebook posts and text messages, the government knows what you write. By monitoring your movements with the use of license plate readers, surveillance cameras and other tracking devices, the government knows where you go.

By churning through all of the detritus of your life—what you read, where you go, what you say—the government can predict what you will do. By mapping the synapses in your brain, scientists—and in turn, the government—will soon know what you remember.

And by accessing your DNA, the government will soon know everything else about you that they don’t already know: your family chart, your ancestry, what you look like, your health history, your inclination to follow orders or chart your own course, etc.

Of course, none of these technologies are foolproof.

Nor are they immune from tampering, hacking or user bias.

Nevertheless, they have become a convenient tool in the hands of government agents to render null and void the Constitution’s requirements of privacy and its prohibitions against unreasonable searches and seizures.

What this amounts to is a scenario in which we have little to no defense of against charges of wrongdoing, especially when “convicted” by technology, and even less protection against the government sweeping up our DNA in much the same way it sweeps up our phone calls, emails and text messages.

With the entire governmental system shifting into a pre-crime mode aimed at detecting and pursuing those who “might” commit a crime before they have an inkling, let alone an opportunity, to do so, it’s not so far-fetched to imagine a scenario in which government agents (FBI, local police, etc.) target potential criminals based on their genetic disposition to be a “troublemaker” or their relationship to past dissenters.

Equally disconcerting: if scientists can, using DNA, track salmon across hundreds of square miles of streams and rivers, how easy will it be for government agents to not only know everywhere we’ve been and how long we were at each place but collect our easily shed DNA and add it to the government’s already burgeoning database?

Not to be overlooked, DNA evidence is not infallible: it can be wrong, either through human error, tampering, or even outright fabrication, and it happens more often than we are told. The danger, warns scientist Dan Frumkin, is that crime scenes can be engineered with fabricated DNA.

Now if you happen to be the kind of person who trusts the government implicitly and refuses to believe it would ever do anything illegal or immoral, then the prospect of government officials—police, especially—using fake DNA samples to influence the outcome of a case might seem outlandish.

Yet as history shows, the probability of our government acting in a way that is not only illegal but immoral becomes less a question of “if” and more a question of “when.”

With technology, the courts, the corporations and Congress conspiring to invade our privacy on a cellular level, suddenly the landscape becomes that much more dystopian.

As I make clear in my book Battlefield America: The War on the American People, this is the slippery slope toward a dystopian world in which there is nowhere to run and nowhere to hide.


By John W. Whitehead and Nisha Whitehead
Source: The Rutherford Institute

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The Falls Hotel, Ennistymon. Home to Macnamaras. Caitlin Macnamara married Dylan Thomas. By chance found this interview. My grandmother Marcella Blake-Forster (Comyn) and Caitlin’s father Francis were first cousins. The Comyn’s were also related to the Macnamaras

Francis McNamara
Francis MacNamara was born in 1884 as the eldest son of Henry Vee.
He disregarded a career in law and enjoyed instead the bohemian lifestyle of a circle of young poets and artists in London. In 1909 he published a book of poems called Marionettes. Some of these poems were inspired by his home in Ennistymon.
He secretly married Yvonne Majolier in 1911 and they lived together in London. They had 4 children, John, Nicolette, Brigit and Caitlin. Francis also had another daughter outside of the marriage. Some of their honeymoon was spent in Doolin House. It was still much in use at that time.
After his marriage to Yvonne fell apart, he married Augustus John’s sister-in-law, Edie McNeil, in 1928. After Edie died, Francis got married for a third time in 1936 to Iris O’Callaghan-Westropp. He was then fifty-two years of age. They both returned to Ennistymon House soon after and turned it into the ‘Falls Hotel’.
This adventure failed due to his unprofessional approach and great generosity to his guests. The Hotel was sold and they moved into a small house at the rear of the hotel. They spent part of their time here and parts in Dublin.
The marriage started to deteriorate and so did Francis’ health. He died in 1946 at the age of sixty-two.
This text is a shortened version of an extract of a page from the Clare Library titled:
“Ennistymon Castle and House and The Falls Hotel”
If you have not come to this page from our homepage, you can use this link to visit our About Doolin page.
If you have come from our homepage, just close the page when you want to get back.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/aug/17/poetry.highereducation

Francis Macnamara and Augustus John who spent so much time at Doolin until the house was burnt out by the IRA in the 1920’s

Two Flamboyant Fathers: Devas, Nicolette

Francis McNamara
Francis MacNamara was born in 1884 as the eldest son of Henry Vee.
He disregarded a career in law and enjoyed instead the bohemian lifestyle of a circle of young poets and artists in London. In 1909 he published a book of poems called Marionettes. Some of these poems were inspired by his home in Ennistymon.
He secretly married Yvonne Majolier in 1911 and they lived together in London. They had 4 children, John, Nicolette, Brigit and Caitlin. Francis also had another daughter outside of the marriage. Some of their honeymoon was spent in Doolin House. It was still much in use at that time.
After his marriage to Yvonne fell apart, he married Augustus John’s sister-in-law, Edie McNeil, in 1928. After Edie died, Francis got married for a third time in 1936 to Iris O’Callaghan-Westropp. He was then fifty-two years of age. They both returned to Ennistymon House soon after and turned it into the ‘Falls Hotel’.
This adventure failed due to his unprofessional approach and great generosity to his guests. The Hotel was sold and they moved into a small house at the rear of the hotel. They spent part of their time here and parts in Dublin.
The marriage started to deteriorate and so did Francis’ health. He died in 1946 at the age of sixty-two.
This text is a shortened version of an extract of a page from the Clare Library titled:
“Ennistymon Castle and House and The Falls Hotel”
If you have not come to this page from our homepage, you can use this link to visit our About Doolin page.
If you have come from our homepage, just close the page when you want to get back.

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What we need to know urgently: UK want their “Freedom Day” plans for 21st June 2021 but is this excessive optimism: See Delta, the Indian variant otherwise known as B.1.617.2. Thanks to Professor Gerry Killeen, UCC; we need to see more of you on our TV programmes.

Gerry Killeen #corkcanbezero #WeCanBeZero@killeen_gerry Connection to Twitter

Please watch this link and circulate it. Professor Killeen biography below taken from UCC web page.

UK “Freedom Day” versus the B.1.617.2 “Delta” variantIt’s Tuesday 8th June. Many people are calling for ‘Freedom Day’ (proposed for 21st June) and the release of restrictions in the UK … but, faced with the n…

UCC University College Cork Zoo Research Group School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences

Gerry Killeen is an ecologist and epidemiologist who has spent over 18 years living in east Africa, working on the behavioural ecology of mosquitoes and biologically rational approaches to more effective control of vector borne parasites like malaria and lymphatic filariasis, as well as arboviruses like Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Gerry’s previous work on malaria vectors has helped shape global policies on coverage targets and target product profiles for insecticide treated nets and established implementation models for larval source management with environmentally friendly biological insecticides. Gerry’s work on the host preferences and feeding behaviours of malaria vector mosquitoes has influenced ongoing global research investment priorities and his recent move to UCC through an AXA Research Chair Award extends that work to examine how community-based wildlife conservation creates both obstacles and opportunities for enhanced malaria vector control in Africa. Closer to home, undergraduate research projects Gerry supervises include the influence of captivity on vocal territorial advertising by Asiatic lions at Fota Wildlife Park and risks of avian pathogen importation into Ireland through migratory birds.

Zoo Research Group

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences

University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork, T23N73K

University College Cork Bring me to MyUCC Show me Copyright © UCC 2021 TopResearch & InnovationDiscover UCCSchools & DepartmentsBusiness & EnterpriseAlumni & Development

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Let’s become more aware about the WHO (World Health Organisation)

LIVE Q&A with Dr Mike Ryan and Dr Maria Van Kerkhove about COVID-19 epi situation and variants – YouTube: Early June meeting 2021.

These remarkable people at the WHO have allocated time to discuss the Pandemic and answer questions. What is of particular importance is their references to what the young people have contributed and their potential. Our future depends on many who are not in the category of “takers” ie let’s go to space first ie Musk Bezos and now Richard Branson who started Virgin who wants to be their first ie as a profiteer but to give credence and thanks to those who are willing to give of their time, effort and in many cases without remuneration. Many of them are the hidden scientists and academics, administrators, drivers, computer ple and so many more who do not want to be known but who care enough to make the world a better place.

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Birth of Sir James Comyn, Irish-born English High Court Judge

Search Comyn … I am granddaughter of James Comyn’s uncle Michael.

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Called after my Grandfather Michael Comyn KC (Judge Senator see RIA Dictionary of Biography); and having lived with my cousin, Sir James Comyn QC, on two separate stages in my life, age 5 and age 19, I would often jest with JJ and my Mum that this man, Peter Comyn, once a JP, must be connected to our family; he is definitely related through the Macnamara’s who were married into my family through both my grandfather and grandmother, Marcella Blake-Forster. Epigenetics may cause the void that this synopsis of a man’s horrid experience of execution may be the reason I feel he was wronged. He is buried where, Michael, James, Eleanor Rose (my mum) and other Comyns are buried at Bishop’s Quarter, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

Jesuit, or, Catholic sentinel (1829-1831), Volume I, Number XLVIII, 31 July 1830 — Triumph of the Catholic Religion EXECUTION of MR. COMYN, IN ENNIS, FOR FORGERY [ARTICLE]

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Triumph of the Catholic Religion EXECUTION of MR. COMYN, IN ENNIS, FOR FORGERY

On Wednesday, the 28th April, this wretched man expiated on the gallows the offence of which he had been guilty against the laws of his country. From the moment that he became aware that there was no hope to be entertained from the Government, he devoted himself to religion, and continued unceasingly to exercise himself in its duties. At half past two o’clock the wretched man, attended by six Catholic clergymen, was brought into the press-room. He was dressed in a suit of black and had a silk handkerchief loosely tied round his neck. After praying for about half an hour he rose, and beckoned the executioner to his duty. While his arms were binding, and the other preparations were making necessary for his execution, he seemed either regardless, or unconscious of what was doing—his eyes remained fixed in one position, while his lips were moving as if in prayer.

When he was told that all was ready, he kissed each of the clergymen on the cheek, and desired that he might be conducted to the drop. About three o’clock he was led forth, and being placed on the drop, not more than a few seconds intervened until it fell, and life became at once extinct; the unfortunate man appearing to die without a struggle. The body, after hanging the usual time, was placed in a coffin, and removed the same evening to Corofin, where it was met by the many numerous and respectable relatives of the deceased. Three of the illegitimate children of Mr. Comyn were with him in prison. It would be impossible to describe their agony and distress at the moment of parting from their miserable parent, who displayed in the interview with them the same steadiness of nerve and firmness of mind, which marked his demeanor up to the moment of his death.

As a mark of respect for the family of Mr. Comyn, and as a testimony of commiseration of his fate, the inhabitants of Ennis had their shops closed the entire of Wednesday. The Rev. Messrs. Cullinan and Geoghan remained with Mr. Comyn during the entire of the previous night, administering to him the consolations of the Catholic Church, to which faith he conformed since his conviction. He prayed very fervently during the night, and towards morning, finding himself somewhat exhausted, he retired to take some rest, and slept soundly for nearly three hours Several clergymen visited him during the morning, and he appeared to enjoy great comfort from their spiritual instructions.

The following very solemn profession of faith, signed by this unfortunate gentleman on the day he suffered, was sent to us last night for publication:— Ennis Goal, half past 2 o’clock, April 2Sth IS3O. “ Having attentively listened to the clergymen and laymen of the different persuasions on the most important of all subjects, my eternal happiness, I am firmly convinced that the Holy Roman Catholic Church is that in which I can more securely die. During the last month I hope I have labored to avail myself of the advantages and graces imparted by the Mother Church, exclusively: and with my last accents I leave my blessing to the Very Rev. and Venerable Dean O’Shaughnessy, the Chaplain of the prison, and to the Rev. Gentlemen whom he has selected to administer spiritual consolation to my departing spirit. PETER COMYN, “James Fitzpatrick, “Ralph Cullinan-. “James O’Shaughnessy.”

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Clare County LibraryClare People
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Peter Comyn
(1778-1830)

Peter Comyn was the son of David Comyn of Kilcorney and Dorothea Mc Namara of Doolin, Co. Clare. He resided in Bishop’s Quarter, Ballyvaughan, which he inherited from his mother. He lived here until at least 1814. At one time he had a yearly income of over £600. He also had land at Deimnacurrin and registered a £50 freehold in 1813. He was by then a serving magistrate for nine years and in that capacity acted at different times in Clare, Galway and Mayo.

Peter Comyn was a strange and complex character. Physically he was a big man. John O’Donovan in his letters describes him as “a stout robust man of large proportions and corpulant”. He was interested in folklore and he collected stories and legends from his neighbours. He suffered from a mental disorder which at times manifested itself in outbursts of insanity. He had a common law wife and three, or possibly four, children.

He leased land in the townland of Murtyclough and lived there, cared for by two servant maids. His house was called Scotland Lodge and according to the “Clare Journal” he had built it himself. The site of his house is not far from the old national school of Ballyveleghan, near New Quay. His landlord was Bindon Scott of Cahercon and by 1829 the “most rancorous animosity” had existed between them for a number of years. The bad feeling dates back to 1743 when Peter’s grandfather, Laurence Comyn, was involved in a mortgage deal with John Scott. Comyn lost heavily in the deal. At the height of their dispute over possession of Scotland Lodge, on the night of December 7th, 1829, the house was set on fire. Peter was found guilty of arson, two counts of perjury and one of forgery. He was sentenced to death by hanging and executed on April 28th, 1830. He became a Catholic a month before he perished on the gallows of the County Gaol in Ennis. His conversion to Catholicism gave rise to some comment in the newspapers. He had been generally considered at least a nominal Protestant, but he was, more likely, a religious sceptic.

On the day of his execution “most of the gentry”, to many of whom he was related, “had left town in various directions nor was any of them visible”. They had made every effort to save him, one of their own, from the scaffold. As a mark of respect the shopkeepers of Ennis closed their businesses on that day. Both the written records and the folk memory are less than flattering to Peter’s character. O’Donovan described Peter as “a rare instance of human talent, honour, folly and dishonesty most strangely combined”. << Back to Clare People


       
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Source: National Archives

NAI REFERENCE:CSO/RP/1830/2240
TITLE:Letters from A De Frieze, [London], and Eliza Hewson, [Dublin], pleading for a royal pardon for Peter Comyn, Ennis Gaol
SCOPE & CONTENT:Letter from [Sir] Robert Peel, [Home Secretary], Whitehall, [London, England], to William Gregory, [Under Secretary, Dublin Castle], enclosing letters from A De Frieze, 15 Nassau Street, [London], and Eliza Hewson, 29 Grenville Street, Mount Joy [Mountjoy] Square, [Dublin], pleading for a royal pardon for Peter Comyn, Ennis Gaol, [County Clare], a former magistrate who was sentenced for burning his house, Scotland Lodge.
EXTENT:3 items; 9pp
DATE(S):4 Apr 1830-8 Apr 1830
DATE EARLY:1830
DATE LATE:1830
ORIGINAL REFERENCE:1830/Whitehall/12
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Royal Mercy’s Constitutional Context

(Page 25)

“…..A dying George IV was the last monarch to act independently by reprieving a gentleman and sometime magistrate, Peter Comyn, convicted of arson on his residence in Co. Clare, in April 1830.  With opposition from the Home Secretary, Peel and Wellington, the King backed down.  At the same time, the prerogative was politicized by party politics.  The Tory William Huskisson, seaking on the opposition MP Robert Grant’s motion on a regency in July 1830 after William IV’s accession, asserted the need for no break in the Monarchy…..

(Page 62)

“The declining George IV failed, in the end, to save an Irish gentleman and sometime magistrate, Peter Comyn, of County Clare (connected to some of the leading families in Clare and Galway, from being hanged for arson, in late April 1830, after burning his own house in December 1829.  Memorials were sent to the king from Ennis.  The reprieve through King’s messenger (reported in the Irish press) delayed execution at Ennis jail by weeks, and the affair involved the vicroy, the Duke of Northumberland, and Prime Minister Wellington.  The Clare Sentinel hoped that ‘the brightest gem in royal prerogative … may still be influences to ‘illumine his dungeon’.  It was not to be.  Yet attendance despite the ‘ardent curiosity of the lower classes of the people to witness fatal exhibitions of this kind, especially where the sufferer was far from the ordinary routine of such cases’ was limited because of the general impression that Comyn would be spared.  The junior sheriff even offered to delay the execution until 4 pm, to await any letters of respite.  The case for mercy on the basis of unsound intellect had not been demonstrated, although newspapers described Comyn as ‘occasionally eccentric’ or suffering from ‘great mental aberration, amounting in many instances to acts of insanity’.  To use the Limerick Post’s phrase when it appeared that Comyn would live, he was kept through George’s mercy ‘in a state of cruel vibration between life and death’.  Footnotes  199 – 203

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Record

Search tip: Click ‘Reference’ to see the hierarchy browser for the whole collection

CollectionGeorge IV Private Papers
Record TypeCorrespondence
ReferenceGEO/MAIN/24918-25049
TitleLetterbook of George IV’s private correspondence
Date29 April 1821-15 April 1830

GEO/MAIN/24971: Letter from George IV from the Duke [?] regarding a petition from the inhabitants of County Clare [Ireland] relating to Peter Comyn’s sentence to death for arson [at Scotland Lodge, Murtyclough, County Clare, Ireland], [c.1829]. [See also GEO/MAIN/25048-25049]

PGEO/MAIN/25048-25049: Letter from Robert Peel to George IV regarding the respite of Peter Comyn’s sentence of execution for arson [at Scotland Lodge, Murtyclough, County Clare, Ireland], 15 April 1830, Whitehall. [See also GEO/MAIN/24971]

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Interesting link: People executed … including Peter Comyn, Gentleman

http://www.ivanlea.net/sub_pages/executions.htm

The Macnamaras of Doolin & Ennistymon by Michael Mac Mahon

Introduction

The Macnamaras of Co. Clare are among the oldest families in Ireland and can trace their lineage back almost to the dawn of authentic history. The Annals of the Four Masters record their warring exploits from Viking times down to the storming of Anglo-Norman fortress at Quin; right down to the seventeenth century when their territorial boundaries finally collapsed in the Cromwellian confiscations. In the history of Co. Clare, they rank second only to the royal O’Briens with whom they shared a common ancestor; and,in fact, it was the privilege of the Macnamaras to preside at the inauguration of the O’Brien kings of Thomond. The territory over which the Macnamaras held sway was known for centuries as Uí Caisín, after Cas the ancestor of the Dalcassian tribes. At one time,it included almost all that part of Clare lying east of the River Fergus and south of a line extending from Ruanto the Shannon. In the final centuries of their dominance the Macnamara chiefs were known as lords of Clancullen, and in 1580 they held no fewer than forty-two castles in their territory.

In the land surveys of the following century no less than two hundred of their name held lands in fee simple.

The Gaelic version of the name i.e. Macconmara signifies ‘son of the sea hound’ (i.e.the seal) and is traceable to the ancient Celtic custom of incorporating an animal or legendary figure into a surname. The Sheedys and Conheadys of Co. Clare also derive from the Macnamaras, taking their names from Maccon and Con ‘Síoda’(‘SilkenSkinned’)

Macnamara. Among the noteworthy achievements of the Macnamaras was the founding of the abbey for Franciscan friars at Quin, right in the heart of their territory. In 1433 Pope Eugene IV issued a testimony in praise of Maccon, son of Sioda Cam Mcnamara “for his devotion to the order of St. Francis, and for his pious purpose in maintaining a house in the town of Quin in the diocese of Killaloe with church, belfry and other necessary buildings for the use and dwelling place of Friars Minor who shall there serve God under regular observance”.

The friary continued to be endowed by succeeding chieftains of the clan, and for generations the name Francis became a favourite name in many Macnamara families. Macnamara with a small ‘n’, the form of the name habitually used by this family, is retained throughout.

The Macnamaras were greatly reduced by the Cromwellian confiscations in the seventeenth century, and only six of their principal families retained part of their ancestral lands, although some of them did afterwards manage to recover substantial holdings from the new owners. Writing at the end of the nineteenth century, the Clare historian James Frost remarked that “even at this day, though fallen to the rank of the common people, an air of gentility and breeding is observable in many members of this ancient family”.

The Doolin/Ennistymon Branch

The Macnamaras of Doolin and Ennistymon were descended from the lordly Cancullen and their arrival in North Clare can be put down to the dislocation caused by the Cromwellian Land Settlement in the mid-seventeenth century. According to the family pedigree which was registered sometime before 1794 with the Grant of Arms, Ulster Office, by Francis Macnamara of Doolin, this branch began with Teige Macnamara of Ballynacraggy, who settled in Sean-Mucinis, parish of Drumcreehy (Ballyvaughan) in 1659.

Teige was the great-grandson of Donough Macnamara of Moyriesk and Creevagh (living in 1594) from whose eldest son, by later descent, derived Francis of Moyriesk, a member of parliament for Clare in 1790 and the father of the famous John ‘Fireball’ Macnamara said to have fought fifty-seven duels, and to have been wounded at Vinegar Hill.

Teige Macnamara of Drumcreehy married Ann Nugent, daughter of Edmund Nugent of Colmanstown, Co. Kildare, an ‘innocent papist’ who, like himself had been transplanted to North Clare by the Cromwellian commissioners.

They had a family of seven sons, the youngest of whom was Bartholomew, ancestor of the Macnamaras of Doolin and Ennistymon. Burke’s Irish Family Records, states that this Bartholomew was born in 1685 and lived at Muraghlin (Murrough?) in the Burren. He married Dorothy, daughter of William Brock, mayor of Galway, and had issue:

1. William;

2. Michael d.s.p .

3 .Teige of Fermoyle d.s.p

4. .John. Married the dau of Anthony McDonagh of Irish Brigade fame.

5 . Mary m. Hugh Davoren

6. Margaret m. Robert Skerritt

7. Ann m. Laurence Comyn, KilcorneyBartholomew died in 1761 and was buried in the old church of Rathbourney, near Ballyvaughan.

10. William the eldest son was born at Gleninagh in 1714. He married Catherine Sarsfield, daughter and eventually co-heiress of Francis Sarsfield of Doolin and his wife, Arabella Martin, of Dangan, Co. Galway.

3The Sarsfields

The Sarsfields claimed descent from an old Anglo-Norman family who had come to Ireland in the twelfth century. By the end of the sixteenth century they were amongst the foremost in the country, having acquired large properties in Kildare, Cork and Limerick. Patrick Sarsfield (b. 1593) Recorder of Limerick city had extensivelands in Lower Bunratty in 1641. Like the Macnamaras he too was transplanted to North Clare and in 1653 he was assigned 888 plantation acres in the parishes of Kilmoon and Doolin. One of his sons, Ignatius Sarsfield, became a major in Charles O’Brien’s regiment of infantry and distinguished himself in one of the Irish brigades in France. General Patrick Sarsfield of siege of Limerick fame was a close relative.

The marriage of William Macnamara to Catherine Sarsfield might seem at first glance to explain the acquisition of the Sarsfield estate by the Macnamaras. In fact, the matter was not quite so simple, and the entire affair ended up in a tangle of legal proceedings in chancery.

Catherine had six brothers, all of whom at one time or another served with the Irish brigades in France. They were therefore deemed to be ‘forfeiting persons’ under the penal laws of the time, having gone into military service outside the kingdom without a licence. In order to circumvent the law, the lands were transferred to Macnamara and others, but over time relations turned sour leading to litigation and infighting which persisted long after William Macnamara’s death in 1762.

The affair was further complicated by Catherine’s second marriage to Nicholas Comyn of Kilcorney sometime around 1772. William Macnamara and Catherine Sarsfield had issue has follows:FrancisWilliam of Mogouhy & MoheraroonMary mar Francis Martyn, GalwayCatherineAnneDorothyDorothy, the youngest daughter, married her cousin David Comyn of Kilcorney and afterwards of Bishop’s Quarter who became a J.P. in 1769. Their son, Peter Comyn of Scotland Lodge, New Quay, caused something of a political bombshell when he was hanged at Ennis in 1830 for burning down his dwelling house following a dispute with his landlord, Bindon Scott of Cahercon.12Francis Macnamara the eldest son was born in Doolin in 1750. His father’s will stipulated that he receive his education from Lucius O’ Brien, 3rdbaronet of Dromoland, but where this actually took place is not known. His brother William became a law student at the Temple in London. In 1774 Francis married Jane Stamer of Carnelly 4House, Clarecastle, grand-daughter of Christopher O’Brien of Ennistymon. They built Doolin House, the ruins of which still exist, butin 1806 they moved to Wellpark, near Galway city, where Francis died in 1821. Francis and Jane had issue as follows:William NugentRichard of OughdarraGeorgeFrancis (Aran View)Henry (Roy. Navy)John (of Moher)Sir Burton (Admiral RN)Brock (died in Jamaica)Stamer (d. in childhood)Honora (d. aged 20)Dorothy Catherine m.Capt. CalcuttBy all accounts, Francis’s wife Jane Stamer was cast in the mould of a Jezebel and ruled over her husband and family with an iron fist. After the birth of her youngest daughter, over whom she doted, her relations with the older children turned sour and she spent much of the remainder of her life tryingto have them disinherited in favour of her youngest child. It is stated that she physically threw them out of the house, sometimes for weeks on end when they were obliged to seek shelter in the homes of family servants. Shetook upon herself the management of the estate, forging her husband’s name to leases which were doled out sometimes for substantial bribes. The move to Galway in 1806 was regarded by their friends as entirely Jane’s idea for the perverse purpose of putting further distance between her husband and his family and relations. It is said that the move broke Francis’ s heart, and there is a pathetic account of how the carriage had to be brought every day for a week to the hall door before he could be induced to leave his beloved Doolin.13Later when some of the children had gone away from home she would write to them without her husband’s knowledge forbidding them to come to visit him, while at the same time she complained to him about their lack of concern for his welfare.Macnamara v Macnamara After Francis’s death in 1821 Jane sought to frustrate the terms of his will, and William Nugent and some of his brothers were obliged to take legal proceedings against her. The affair is much too complicated to be discussed here, but it discloses an unhappy saga of jealousy and family feuding. To add to her troubles Jane’s favourite daughter did not live up to her mother’s expectations; she ran away with a penniless young army officer named William Calcutt and caused something of a scandal when she was discovered secreted away in a barracks at Dunmore. To their credit Calcutt and Dorothy later entered into a successful marriage and their only son, Francis Calcutt Macnamara, became a popular M.P. for Co. Clare in the 1850s.He died from cancer in 1863, aged 44. He lived at St. Catherine’s at Gotaclob near Doolin, a property which Dorothy 5inherited on her marriage. Dorothy herself died around 1824 pre-deceasing her mother by about ten years.Evidence adduced at the court proceedings between Jane Macnamara and her sons throws an interesting sidelight on conditions obtaining around the end of eighteenth century and particularly on the educational opportunities open to the children of landed Protestant families who could afford to pay their way. It was stated that John had boarded at Stephen O’Halloran’s school at Ennis. Stamer and Burton were sent to Portarlington to a school run by a Mr. Bonafin where they stayed at ‘a heavy expense’. Burton later went to Mr. Fitzgerald’s school at Ennis and remained there until he entered the navy. Stamer was removed from his school in Portarlington to Mr. Moore’s school at Donnybrook, where he became ill and died. Brock was sent to Mr. Bonafin’s school at the age of four and afterwards enteredTrinity College. After graduatinghe went to Jamaica and died there soon afterwards of yellow fever. Francis was educated at Killaloe, Clonmel and Dublin. He then came home and was given a farm free by his father. George was sent to school at Ennis. When at home all the sons had, at one time or another, received instruction from a resident tutor. Honora died of consumption at the age of 30.The later careers of William Nugent and Burton are reasonably well known but information on the fortunes of the other sons is patchy. Francis, as we have seen, was given a farm by his father, together with a sum of one thousand pounds at the time of his marriage to Marcella O’ Flaherty from Aran. The farm was known as Glasha and on it Francis and Marcella built a house which they named Aran View. Much extended and refurbished it is now the attractive Aran View House Hotel run by the Linnane family at Doolin. Marcella is said to have inherited a quantity of fine gold and silver ornaments salvaged from a wreck of the ill-fated Spanish Armada. After her death in 1856 the objects passed to her daughter Catherine Macnamara, wife of Robert Johnson J.P., who married into Aran View. After Catherine’s death in 1867 the object passed once more to herdaughter –another Marcella –who married Francis Blake-Foster of Ballykeale near Kilfenora.Francis’s brother George served in the army but apparently was obliged to leave when his father refused to pay for a commission for him. However, he was rewarded with a farm at Oughdarra and was also a beneficiary to the tune of five hundred pounds from his father’s will. Henry, the fifth son of Francis and Jane Macnamara served in the royal navy for a period. At some point in later life he suffered from a mental illness of some kind and he is said to have received a conviction at Ennis allegedly for throwing a woman into a fire.14

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CAN MENTAL ILLNESS BE UNDERSTOOD AS A FORM OF SOCIAL DEVIANCE?

Written by: Michelle Clarke- September 2003. Final essay BESS Third Year at Trinity College Dublin.

Mental illness must be first defined in the context of legislation.-1-  Account is required of the predominantly medical input and the challenge that is faced by Sociologists and other disciplines. It is the biomedical model that has made such an impact on our cultural ideas about the body. The body is determined to be well or ill.-2- This in turn reflects the attitudes and beliefs of people. History reflects its assumptions to interpretations of mental illness and these interpretations prove valid for some people still. Bio-medicine looks to the body and separates other aspects of the human being.-3- Herein lies the conflict necessary to invoke challenge and bring about change. The body is predominant: social, psychological and behavioural factors of the illness stand apart. The illness is pathologised and the disease is allocated to some part of the body (physical reductionism). -4- The Body is seen as the object of regime and control (Foucault, 1979).

This essay will review the historical social construction of mental illness – the pathologised version as enacted by legislation. It will review the myth imbibed by capitalism and science to the stigmatized illness that presently exists. I review the impact of fear as the powerful hidden component. Challenge exists and the entry of sociologists like Comte, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, to the Chicago School in 1924 like Goffman are discussed in terms of their approach to Deviance. The introduction of Social Movements in line with concept of civil rights in the 1960’s and taking hold in the UK from the 1980’s onwards. For the first time, we saw the opportunity for those designated ‘mentally’ ill to become stakeholders in their own future. The stage where the person who was once the patient (inmate) can refer to themselves as ‘survivor of mental illness’ or just survivor. Children, Education, Amnesty International, the United Nations, the EU and their Quality of Life research programmes are essential to provide the empowerment for the mentally ill to engage and disengage (with the understanding of people). This is vital. Only could those with mental illness have been so poorly treated and disregarded, if people conjured them as ‘deviant’ and not worth input.

Historical Social Construction of Mental illness – the assumptions
The ‘Struggle against Psychiatry’ has a long history. In 1620, the House of Lords received the ‘Petition of the Poor Distracted People in the House of Bedlam’ – the complaint was against inhumane treatment to the inmates. In 1845, the ‘Alleged Lunatics’ Friends Society was formed by ex-patients (Mind, 2003).-5-

The Middle Ages, saw the disappearance of leprosy in the Western World. Between the High Middle Ages and the end of the Crusades, leprosariums multiplied in the cities of Europe. The 17th century saw the creation of the houses of confinement established in Paris and other cities. Ironically, the Great Confinement made the human being – a social being and identity, subject to classification. It would have been economically viable to use the vacated buildings and to use them for the purpose of those held to be deviant, (Foucault,1967).

This period coincided with birth of Capitalism. Power and vanity became the new driving force. In England, the merchant class engaged in speculative ventures – those expectations driven by financial motivation involving commerce with emphasis on the emotions: fear and hope. Core to commerce is competition, envy and avarice and this has a price. The Renaissance period was the time of growth in individualism and this can incubate despotism. A schism arose in the Church dividing the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church.-6- The protestant work ethic, accumulation of capital, and a belief in a pre-destination created a suitable ethos to ignite in people the motivation required to embed Capitalism and class structure (Foucault, 1967: 74)

Mythology origin –Pathologised-Capitalism-Science

‘Suddenly, in a few years in the middle of the 18th century, a fear arose – a fear formulated in medical terms but animated, basically, by a moral myth’.
(Foucault, 1967: 192)

People were in ‘dread’ of a mysterious disease that spread from the houses of confinement that would soon threaten the cities. The disease became pathologised – fears, hallucinations, absent-mindedness all became identifiable symptoms.-7- (The symptoms in the footnote need to be seen in the context of what the Mental Health Act 2001 provides today). (Foucault, 1967: 199). Unreason and mental illness became intermingled. Unreason involves real fear. ‘Dread’ and the implications of fear compounded with the shame, stigma and ‘panopticism’ ensured segregation. Power and control enforce the dogma.

Contradiction and Challenge:-8-
Madness began to invoke thought. It became an issue of raising ‘the original truth’ but rather than it remaining hidden, this truth could ‘hang’ in history forever….This endorsed fear for some, both sides of the divide, but for different motives and different reasons. Fear and its internal impact and method of control and containment are hidden topics for discussion. The inference is weakness, the reality is fear can be used to control the vulnerable. Fear is pervasive in its implications.-9-

‘The truth of madness is what madness is…What madness is, is a form of vision that destroys itself by its own choice of oblivion in the face of existing forms of social tactics and strategy’ (Cooper, D. in Foucault, 1967: Intro)

The Reality is: Madness fascinates: The question stands – Is it madness or is it Vision?
‘It is of little importance on exactly which day in the autumn of 1888, Nietzche went mad for good, and after which his texts no longer afford philosophy but psychiatry: All of them, including the postcard to Strindberg, belong to Nietzche, And all are related to the Birth of Tragedy’. Our view of Nietzche is what he gave and continues to give to the Modern World’ (Blum, 273).

Sociologists’ Definition – Deviance:

‘Deviance always refers to conduct that is in violation of the rules
constructed by a given society or group. In other words, the concept of deviance implies a moral difference. It refers to the refusal or perhaps inability of an individual or group to abide by the moral norms that prevail in the social context in question’
(Berger and Berger, 1972: 305)

The group have defined the rules but the outsider remains outside looking in.-10- The outsider is the source of much speculation, scientific study and theorizing. The question is why does he not want to comply with societal rules?-11-

Sociology and its Origins
Sociology arose in the 19th century.-12- The basics of sociology related to the discovery of the laws of social order and the methodology required to maintain such order. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972)

Durkheim (1858-1917) understood deviance in terms of the functioning of society and deemed it preferable to study the society as distinct from individuals. The conduct of a person has categorized them in the minds of others. They are deviant and can be placed in a sub-category thereafter. In his book, Division of Labour, Durkheim highlighted the need for solidarity as people have an inherent need to belong. He wrote of the evolution from the basic operating mechanical society to the more organic society. Durkheim also researched and wrote ‘The Rules of Sociological Society’ in which he established the identity of sociology as distinct from psychological facts. Social facts represent ‘things’ – the approach is objective. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972).

Functionalism is the model applied by Durkheim and further progressed by Talcott Parsons in the US. Functionalism is closely applied to the medical model that promotes patient compliance and the bureaucratic structure to the services provided. Illness is seen as a social deviance when social expectations and norms are not achieved. Illness is an unnatural state hence the imperative function is to alleviate the person from it as quickly as possible. The assumption stands that stigma, shame and vulnerability pertain to many illnesses. Functionalists view health as a social commodity; a resource that is essential for individual achievement and the smooth performance of society (Annadale, 1998:10). The medical model is the Institution for Social Control.

Durkheim established views on Suicide and stated that this method of self-destruction was not only a personal tragedy but his findings were that it was a sociological consequence to which one is integrated in society – rare among married people, rarer in a more closely knit religious establishments and more frequent when rapid social change disrupts the social fabric. Social connectedness matters to our life in a profound way. Social networks reinforce healthy norms (Putnam, 2000).

Merton’s work has been productive in that it links with Durkheim’s concept of anomie and the analysis of social class. There have been investigations that link certain class positions to mental illness.

Weber examined the role of ideas in history; Marx focused on the economic aspects. Weber and Durkheim both reviewed the impact of Religion. Weber wrote on ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It was Georg Simmel who reviewed the role of the Stranger – the dyads and triads. Simmel sought to establish ‘a formal sociology’. These sociologists are European.-13-

Goffman links back to the Chicago School of the 1920’s – America.-14-
Deviance is measured against a perception as to what is reality. The perception of reality is that defined by Society. Perceptions differ, they change. Both normality and deviance are important components of ‘reality’. One must be aware that Society is protective against challenges as to how they define reality:-15-

‘The total institution is a social hybrid, part residential, part community, part formal organization, there in lies its special sociological interest’ (Goffman, 1968: 22)

Goffman engaged with the concept of symbolic interactionism. To Goffman, mental hospitals and prisons are ‘total institutions’. Stigma looks at how people actually cope with ‘spoilt identities’. He exhibits a strong feeling of compassion with the victims of negative ‘social designations’. (Goffman: 1961: 22)

Following the trend set by Mills and Goffman, ‘labelling theory’ emerged. Howard Becker is the most well known representative of this new school. It creates a platform for a hierarchy to develop permitting different levels of authority. It is about distinguishing the social worker from the sociologist, from the psychiatrist or the law enforcement officer from the Doctor. It is important to note that what is called deviant today may be deemed normal in the future.

Another aspect to consider about Deviance is that it is understood as simply one way in which people define a situation. It’s ‘reality’ depends upon the power of the people who do the defining to impose their definition upon others.-16-(Goffman, 1961).

Stigmatization in the context of Mental Illness ensures it is referred to as deviant – the modus operandi is a process which one group of people inflicts upon another. The definition will ‘stick’, depending upon the power of the definers. In that case, those who are thus defined, the stigmatized will have to come to terms both socially and psychologically with the ‘spoilt identity’.-17-

CHALLENGE TO SOCIOLOGISTS:-18-

Medicalisation dictates legislation. The 1945 Mental Health Act-19- was only altered in 2001 with much grassroots activity of social movements and charities at a variety of levels. The issue of Rights for the mentally ill remains in limbo in Ireland. However, social movements are in existence.

Social Movements – Nick Crossley
‘Social movements can be viewed as collective enterprises seeking to establish a new order of life…The career of a social movement depicts the emergence of a new order of life.
(Blumer 1969: 99)-20-

Contention Humanities versus Science – US Sociological View 1974
People Question – Can humanity survive with science so prevalent? Sociologists and other social scientists are divided in opinion as to how to best position themselves to address the science versus the humanities issue in the 20th century. The major challenges concern proceeding with research under subsidies from those in power or should they only be investigators committed solely to their own humanist goals. Can they merge both together was the issue? (McClung Lee, 1973)-21-. The reality is that if science provides the genetic proof, it still stands that triggers and environmental factors play a large part in mental illness.

Education – the key factor to effect change: Multiple intelligences exist yet the school curriculum is weighted against non scientific approach students.

Bourdieu defines the sociology of education ‘specifically in terms of its role in understanding; the contribution made by the education system to the reproduction of the structure of power relationships and symbolic relationships between classes’. (Banks, O, 1968:115)

View of Education – US 1974:

‘Students caught up willingly in the regimenting routines of such specialized trade schools and college as those of business, engineering and military, appear to be heedless to their dehumanization’ (McClung Lee, 1974 pg. 1)-22-

And

‘Our educational procedures are more often geared to the development of believers and technicians rather than independent investigators and thinkers
the mass culture that pervades’ (McClung Lee, 1974: 67)

Representation 1980’s: the approach was more that of a ‘consumerist’ for the patient as distinct from service users or survivor.

The objective is to create social inclusion for people diagnosed with a mental health problem.

Nottingham Advocacy Group was one of the first established in 1986. The movement was towards Survivors speaking out, having a voice and challenging false conceptions perpetuated through mythology and ignorance.

A forward thinking psychiatrist and his client – Dr. Anthony Clare, St. Patrick’s Hospital, Dublin and Spike Milligan, Writer, Comedian with a Manic Depression diagnosis, worked in conjunction to produce a book to provide evidence from both sides. The comparison was drawn that both Cancer and Mental illness are pathologised but the reaction is most likely one of shame in relation to depression, even though a severe depression is life-threatening illness. (Clare, Milligan, 1993).-23-

‘Images of madness in our culture make it starkly clear that it is best avoided or denied – not just because the experience can be alarming, but because it is hard to see oneself simultaneously as ‘crazy’ and as a valid person with a liveable future’ (Sayce, 2002: 8)-24-

‘It addresses one central question: how, and on what basis, do we move beyond the physical de-segregation of hospital closure programmes towards the chance of full participation in social and economic life’. (Sayce, 2002)-25-

Why penalize people who cannot work at 100% range or even a 50% range?-26- Cordis, cordis.europa.eu/ an arm of the EU is currently researching Quality of Life perspectives.-27- Demographics may cause policy makers to change their attitudes and view people as potential (albeit limited) contributors to taxation.

Empowerment and mental health – the need for ‘Academics with Attitude’ .
This is a movement of ‘passive recipients’ to ‘active subjects’. The approach is to challenge the way we think about ‘mental illness’ mental health and what it means to live with madness. -28-(Barnes, 2001; bowl; 2001:). This is about Changing Attitudes. Mind in the UK run successful campaigns like 1 in 4, with descriptive footage of a severely depressed person. These are areas that need consideration. Essential is the use of the internet and system of email both for self-knowledge and innovative type work consistent with ‘diagnosis’.

Points to realistically consider:
Integration implies the individual will fit in with the system
The person has to change. Inclusion means that system itself will develop self-criticism; acknowledge the way in which it excludes and denies access; and dismantle barriers (Shakespeare 1997 in Sayce 31). -29- Anxiety – Valium, Librium – the wonder drugs-30- of the 1960’s are addictive. Consultants are afraid of insurance actions so are much more controlled in what they prescribe. There is no alternative now for the patient with anxiety i.e. except cigarettes/alcohol. Public policy is to prevent smoking in public places. Both cigarettes and tranquilizers are being restricted at the same time. This has implications for increased intake of alcohol. Mental illness also must be described as a physical illness. There is a need to have the service user as a stakeholder in policy making.-31-

Power of Language – Control
‘Language is itself a site of struggle and one of the purposes of user or survivor movements is to reclaim the right to define and name their own experiences’.-32-

Perspective
‘The emphasis on science is important. First it implies that the origin of mental illness and the role of intervention can be studied using the methods of observation and logical inference that form the basis of natural science. As such it is based on ‘fact’, not value, and its definition is seen as independent of Culture or social context.-33- This has both a political and organizational implications. It provides justification for the separation of medicine as a discipline and the retention of power over defining and treating mental illness outside political and popular control……Medicine has a non precise definition .

Reduction of stigma and discrimination is starting to appear high on the public policy agenda in a number of countries. The Australian Government have a major Education programme in place. The New Zealand government have adopted a programme based on studies into other marginalized groups e.g. HIV/Aids.

More Enlightened approach – World Perspective
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights encompasses
civil, political, economic and cultural rights.-34-

Community care is deemed more humane than inpatient stays. Ireland, Israel, Netherlands and Spain have 80-90% of the beds in psychiatric hospitals, France, Germany and Japan have 60-75% occupancy in psychiatric hospitals. The difference is found in Australia, Canada and the USA at 40%. (World Health Organisation page 17)

Amnesty International Ireland www.amnesty.ie/mentalhealth. Sociologically challenges Ireland’s treatment of the mentally ill. (The News on mental health issues from around the world) reports:-)

‘The support for children with, or at risk of mental health from successive Irish governments has not been adequate. The Amnesty publication, Mental Health – the Neglected Quarter, has as its objectives to increase awareness that children’s mental health is a human rights issue, to place this fact firmly before Government, and to lobby much needed reform in Government policy, practice and legislation (Sean Love, Director of Amnesty’s Irish Section).-35-

Gender issues/cultural issues – social factors:
Mental illness must be about multi-disciplinary teams. Psychiatrists opened up to the inclusion of psychology over the past 20 years and it is stated that if trigger events can be limited in a person susceptible to mental illness, and particularly after one event only, it is probable that they will avoid major mental health issues (Aware lecture 2003).www.aware.ie.  75% of those who commit suicide are men.-36- Black men have above average admittance in to psychiatric hospital in the UK and also to high security areas. Most divorces and separations are started by women and fathers tend to lose contact with their children. There is growing evidence that unemployment has an impact on mental. These are social issues impacting on family structure and society: http//www.mind.org/Information/Factsheets/Men/.

THE WAY FORWARD (Denial, Stigma, Shame, Education, Multi-disciplinary teams, Respect for difference)

Education is core to understanding and change.
‘The traditional conceptual framework in the subject is that of functionalism, and derives primarily from the writings of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. The functionalist approach, as Durkheim used it, is to seek for the social function performed by an institution; that is for the part played by the institution in the promotion and maintenance of social cohesion and social unity’. (page etc).

Durkheim referred to the ‘socialization of the young generation’. He sought to imbibe the young generation with values and certain intellectual and physical skills.-37-

The Bright Futures Initiative –
In 1997, the Mental Health Organisation in the UK undertook a major study into the mental health of children and young people. They reviewed the requirements for the emotional and healthy development of children. The 1999 reports Bright Futures was published. Factors that cause children to be susceptible include poverty, poor housing, parental conflict, parental psychiatric problems and abuse.-38- It acknowledges the importance of early intervention. Other reports include The Mental Health of Young Offenders, August 2002 and the Mental Health of Looked After Children, August 2002. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=PIBF -39-

Dr. Fernandez (Amnesty Member),-40- states the need to distinguish between ‘’mental health problems’’ induced by homelessness and ‘’mental illness’’ that may be a factor in becoming or remaining homeless (Amnesty International, 2003: 17). Psychiatric and rehabilitative services but with limited funding are provided at St. Brendan’s Psychiatric Hospital. The main objective is to ‘preserve and regain social function’. The separation from the rest of society in large institutions only ensures exclusion.-41-

IRELAND – Equality and the system of education are formally challenged. It is not inclusive. Is there a link to Mental Illness! Is the scope of the curriculum broad enough?

4500 are now hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals in Ireland. This has reduced from over 21,000 in 1958. By the 1980’s, institutions were costing large sums of money and government policy sought alternatives. Market forces determined the 1980’s de-institutionalisation policies.-42- In the year 2000, admissions were over 20,000 however the issue to be concerned about is that 70% of these were re-admissions. This speaks volumes about the recurrent nature.-43- Dr. Kennedy from Central Mental Hospital in a presentation made a point of the differentiation between those problems that were social i.e. over 80% and those that were psychiatric.-44-

‘To speak of the unspeakable is the beginning of action’ (Millett, 1994)-45-
Who is willing to listen, to hear, to activate change? The Irish psychiatric policy is based on the consumer model and thus adopted by the social movement organizations e.g. Aware and Schizophrenia Ireland. The approach is Top-Down as distinct from user-led action.

‘It is possible to propose a theoretical framework which moves the sociological perspective on from limitations inherent in other sociological traditions within the sociology of health and illness literature, such as psychiatry as a social system (Foucault 1965), or the deviance or the Marxian approaches of Scheff (1999 or Scull (1979 respectively‘ (Speed, E, 2002, 64).  Irish peculiarities mean the model requires adaptation.

Schizophrenia Ireland was set up in 1981. http://www.sirl.ie/other/repository_docs/13.pdf -46- Aware, the voluntary organization was established in 1985.  Aware Ireland, Sanewww.sane.org.uk in the UK and NAMI https://www.nami.org/ in America support the biological basis of mental ‘illness’. Aware is involved in the ‘promotion of research into biological, psychological and social aspects of Depression’ (Aware, 2001).-47- The Minister of Health has put in place an appointed study group to review analytically psychiatric services and community based service (Foreward iii) is now in place.

‘There has been a lack of any concerted mental health service users’ movement within the Republic of Ireland. Mental Health service users’ movements have a marked orientation towards strategies of empowerment and the provision of peer advocacy and support mental health service users’ (Speede, 2002). This is only acceptable if the objective is to change educational policy and introduce multi-disciplinary teams to work in the best interests of the service-user. If this occurs and with the distinct advantage of the internet, survivors can become empowered.

Research – What do we know? What does the future hold?

1997 The Trinity Horizon Project of the Centre of Women Studies covered a period of 4 years and developed a pro-type training and counseling programme for the women recovering from depression to facilitate their re-entry to the workplace. The research was carried out in collaboration with Aware, IBEC, ICTU and FAS.

The stance was from the humanitarian and social perspective. This was aimed at creating survivors. It was concerned with confronting the hidden secret associated with mental illness, dealing with the stigma that pertained and to emphasize just how under-resourced mental health services are. Funds were provided by the EU. A conference was held by the Trinity Horizon project – titled Mental Health and the Workplace: Challenges and Opportunites. It had access to transnational models – this provided a cross cultural dimension. Norbert Tietz, Director, EX+JOB in Wunstorf, Germany.

Immediately receptive is the term social firm. The firm was based on a philosophy of work and part of this was about integration of the participants with the public. Work experience included bar/restaurant work open to the public, fridge recycling plant, used children’s clothes shops, furniture shop and a music shop. The innovation of work came from the community as a whole in collaboration with the psychiatric hospital. The re-cycling dimension proved very successful. It appealed on the environmentally friendly factor. German companies must employ 6% of people with disabilities. If they choose not to pay, they must pay and fine and the money is paid into a fund for people with disabilities.

Professor McKeon, Psychiatrist of St. Patrick’s hospital and founding member of Aware reiterated that people with mental health difficulties, especially those with depression, make excellent employees. If anything, he stressed that this group with their over-anxiety to do well are exemplary employees. ‘Their exaggerated sense of responsibility and loyalty, traits which sometimes contribute to their difficulties, are positive elements for an employer. They are the first at work and have a commitment to any task they undertake. In dealing with their illness, they have already proven their ability to face and overcome difficulties and demonstrated their tenacity and courage’ (Trinity Horizon Project, Centre for Women Studies, 2000: viii)-48-

Yet, such a daring programme proved too expensive for the NRB to undertake. The NRB was subsequently subsumed into FAS – no rehabilitative programme as per the research was in put place yet. In fact, community employment which provided a meager alternative, but an alternative form of rehabilitation is being drastically cut back by Government policy.

CONCLUSION

National Policy framework – stakeholders – Survivors. Rights based Mental Health legislation is needed. Expenditure in psychiatric services has been reduced since 1976 by 20%. Mental illness is about social implications, coping strategies, psychological services and engaging with denial, particularly within the family context.-49- Power and control needs to be monitored.-50- Mental illness merits a consensual approach if people are to be integrated in society. Social workers need to interact with sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, educationalists, and most important in line with the wisdom of Carl Jung, Psychiatrist, Psychologist – they must involve the patient. -51-The Trinity Horizon Research proved too costly an approach but a new direction and approach is in place the National Flexi-Work Partnership Work-Life Balance Project

Comte named a new dimension called sociology; Durkheim elaborated and defined society as an integrated whole; Weber, shared Durkheim’s interest in religions and structure but also was concerned with ideals; and Simmel spoke of the ‘Stranger’. The intervening years saw institutionalization, medicalisation, of people who are ‘Different’. Why should an idealist be different, there might be a latent talent, that is inhibited by structure yet innovation lies there untapped. The challenge rests with Education and incorporation of a broader syllabus, to the Universities to take in hand those non-conformists and educate them and add the dimension to their education,-52- and the education of other students. People are mental health survivors but they must be given a chance. Denial, stigma, shame, must be removed and if it takes the conflict of referring to a person as socially deviant, for the reaction to come – ‘but no you are not in horror’. This is the step forward to dealing with denial. This is reality brought about by fear that no-one cares to acknowledge – hence the suicides are dismissed in shame, in silence, in fear. The medical profession live in fear that they too ‘will break the threshold’ that applies to every human being. This can be intuitively sensed from them. Sociologists need to take stock of the heritage of their founding fathers – perhaps it is time not to seek the credibility of being totally scientific and consider a more humanistic, open, consensual and interactive approach and work within multi-disciplinary teams with the objective of improving society.-53-

My parting comment is about Suicide. Dr. Kelly, (Iraq war 2003) leading scientist in search of nuclear arms in Iraq had the choice to conform to the status quo – to have his knuckles wrapped. He was an individual, deliberated, he knew the outcome if he conformed. Perhaps the issue is – could he have lived with his conscience? Durkheim reviewed suicide in this context. Yet our society does not see that people differ, a ‘Stranger’, -54-holding intuitive sentiments similar to what Shakespeare wrote in Hamlet ‘there is something rotten in the State of Denmark.

March 2015-Contextualised over a decade:  Deviance is deviance surely not as defined by mental health.  The shocking murder of Elaine O’Hara by a man who was socially deviant and so arrogant that he believed he could not be convicted and who was not going to use the defence of Insanity.
Dwyer did not plead insanity. He is found guilty of Murder. He preyed on a vulnerable woman called Elaine O’Hara who had been admitted to Ireland’s most elite psychiatric hospital, St Edmundsbury, on 14 occasions, under the most eminent of psychiatrists including Dr Anthony Clare. The paradox, the person with a mental illness the victim of society’s inability to provide for her mental health need and the murderer, the narcissist, the psychopath, devoid of conscience who saw vulnerable women as objects for his gratification. The question is will people abuse the term mental health and include him as mentally ill. I sincerely hope not. This social deviance stands apart from what mental illness is about. Again I say lets use the term Manic Depression again instead of the sanitised Bipolar. The manic applies to the high but also to the low.


Endnotes

1 An act to provide the involuntary admission to approved centres of persons suffering from mental disorders, to provide for the involuntary admission of such persons and, for the those purposes, to provide for the establishment of a Mental Health Commission and the appointment of Mental Health Commission tribunals and an Inspector of Mental Health Services, to repeal in part the Mental Treatment Act 1945 and to provide for related matters. “Mental Illness” means a state of mind of a person which affects the person’s thinking, perceiving, emotion and judgement and which seriously impairs the mental functions of the person to the extent that he or she requires care and medical treatment in his or her own interest or in the interest of other persons (Mental Health Act 2001)(return)
2 Distribution of wellness and illness throughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
3 Western medicine: science puts forward the belief that the body is separate from the mind and spirit (return)
4 Etiology is about identifying causes for each disease and scourcing cures. A machine capable of repair is the metaphor (return)
5 Exhibitions of inmates would be held and people paid to see those deemed ‘Mad’ (return)
6 Certain earlier sociologists particularly Durkheim and Weber, who carried out considerable research into different religions, linked it closely with the regimented system of values and rules relating to societies (return)
7 It was confinement of the debauched; the spendthrift fathers; prodigal sons; blasphemers, men who “seek to undo themselves”, libertines….One tenth of all the arrests were in Paris for the Hospital General concern “the insane”< “demented” men< individuals of “wandering mind” and persons who have become “completely mad” Foucault, 1967). No mention of alcohol or drugs. (return)
8 Lord Byron: Van Gogh; Churchill; Don Quioxte; Goya personalised mood distortion to black periods. Churchill referred to “Black Dog”. Aware St Patrick’s Hospital run a website titled “Black Dog” (return)
9 ‘Fear of fear refers to the anticipation of anxiety and thoughts that the mental and physical symptoms of anxiety will lead to worse consequences – a thought that in turn generates more anxiety. For example, mounting feelings of anxiety often make the patient anticipate that he or she will lose control and behave in a dis-inhibited way, or even become insane; while rapid heart action may lead the patient to expect a cardiac arrest or coronary thrombosis (Mathews A, Gelder M, Johnston D, 1981:5) (return)
10 Normal personality: how to define it? Perhaps – efficient self perception, realistic self-esteem and acceptance; voluntary control over behaviour; a true perception of the world; sustaining relationships and giving affection; self direction and productivity (Social psychology notes 2nd yr Business Economics and Social Studies Trinity notes (return)
11 Having been institutionalised and detache from society on numerous occasions, you are the outsider looking in (personal comment). Some explanations of psychosis use these exact words’ (return)
12 The name ‘Sociology’ was invented by Auguste Comete (1798-1857) – Philosophy (Positivism) (return)
13 Robert Merton sought to explain deviant behaviour in terms of social structure. He puts forward the idea that all forms of deviant behaviour ‘from differentials in the access to the success goals of a society by legitimate means….Deviance thus occurs as a result of discrepancy between the aspirations which society has socialised into its members and the way that society has provided for realising such aspirations. Merton uses the Durkheimian concept of anomie to refer to such a situation’. This reflects the goal oriented, materialistic strain in America (return)
14 Malfunction appears to determine deviance. ‘Agoraphobia is illness because one should not be afraid of open spaces. Homosexuality is illness because heterosexuality is the social norm. Divorce is illness because it signals failure of marriage….all these and many more have been said to be signs of mental illness (Berger 1963:6) (return)
15 It was then and still is my belief that any group of persons – prisoners, primitives, pilots, or patients – develop a life of their own that becomes meaningful, reasonable and normal once you get close to it, and that a good way to learn about any of these worlds is to submit oneself in the company of the members to the daily round of petty contingencies to which they are subject (Goffman) (return)
16 Mental illness/mood disorder is about lapses to weakness in moral and physical health – this inherent vulnerability is exploited (this includes family; employers, corporates, insurance companies, regimented bodies like education, the legal profession; the Church; non conformists too are not acceptable. Yet medical ethics was horrifically breached by Mengele with use of humans for scientific experiments (NAZI Germany) (return)
17 Victor Frankl (1962) Survivor from Auchwitz (Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Logotherapist, writer. ‘When we describe a responsible person we mean that in every area of his life he is able to meet the demands of this world’. Logotherapy concerns expanding the scope of visions (psychologically) for the patient. Here is the challenge to society. (return)
18 Comment from House of Lords UK: Quite evidently explanations for mental illness and institutionalisation were unclear to those engaged in scrutiny “As we get to know more about the complexity of the human mind, so we try to make our shades of responsibility more complext, and so I thing we get into deeper and deeper muddles Baroness Wootton of Abiger, House of Lords 1962 (return)
19 Irish 1945 Act was based on the earlier English legislation (return)
20 Examples include: Mind UK, (Aware, Grow, Irish Mental Health Advocacy in Ireland and Ireland Mental Health Association of Ireland etc) (return)
21 This was 1974. Now in the UK it is the medical profession who are linking to Humanities for medical conferences (return)
22 What about the social impact of science on man as a social creature? The most obvious is the impact of domestic gadgetry, healt-care facilities, urban and industrial structures and the ultimate threat of nuclear war (McClung Lee, 1974) (return)
23 Surprisingly I sought the implication and definition of fear in his book – there was none. Doctors have an issue with fear (return)
24 Denial is corrosive. Aware now operate a ‘Beat the Blues’ campaign in secondary schools. This is successful. Parents may have very fixed interpretations and refuse to encourage a child to engage at the expense of the child. (return)
25 This book includes several sources including the survivors together with lawyers, policy makers, activists, medical health professions. Primarily the research was completed in the US and UK in the late 1990’s. Reference is made to systems in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. (return)
26 Vincent Van Gogh. His pre-occupation was to give, not to receive financially. His paintings were sold after his death and amrketing applied to accumulate worth. The same applied to letters he wrote. He was socially oriented. (return)
27 Presently, the Centre for Women Studies in Trinity College Dublin are carrying out research which is part of the Equal Community Initiative and the European Social Fund. It involves a mental health advisory committee. University of Dublin; Aware: Age Action; IBEC; Congress of Trade Unions; FAS and mental health survivors will convene over the next two years. The June meeting was a bilateral meeting: Working party of employers and the Mental Health Advisory group including mental health survivors. The focus is National Flexi work – Work Life Balance. (return)
28 Marian Barnes is a member of National Health Action Zone evaluation team focusing on community involvement. (return)
29 ‘People who are seriously disadvantaged in society rarely have just single problems – they have multiple interlocking problems. They do not compete on a level playing field. Empowerment must address all their problems together if it is to be meaningful’. (Davy, 1999, 37) (return)
30 Drugs have side affects; muscle wastage ensures body weakness; anorexia/bulimia can be side affects related to mood disorder or just a manifestation of self-harm, vision, co-ordination, perception, judgment, attention deficits etc (return)
31 The Barr Tribunal (John Carthy RIP): Labeled a Manic Depressive. Somehow anxiety has been removed from language of mental health otherwise he would likely not have been shot dead by An Gardai Siochana. Anxiety drugs (Benzos) are now causing negative reporting as they are deemed too addictive and there are basically no alternatives. It could be said that the cigarettes were used to taunt John Carthy RIP, cigarettes could have calmed his anxiety. Many people go contrary to regulations and even legislation especially relating to drugs and alcohol to help them cope with stress, anxiety, depression. This is a social issue and was addressed by Dr Harry Kennedy (Psychiatrist) who has accommodation problems at the Central Mental Hospital. It is linked to crime. (return)
32 Mental Act of England and Wales defines ‘Mental Disorder’ as mental illness, personality disorder, severe mental impairment. (return)
33 Perhaps this should mean it is a component part of a spectrum that deals with those diagnosed mentally ill. A more equitable distribution of funds in terms of time input would be required. hroughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
34 All persons have the right to the best available mental health care, which shall be part of the health and social care system. MI Principle Amnesty Mental Health Report – the Neglected Quarter). (return)
35 Ireland ratified the UN Convention on Rights of the Child in 1992, whereby it undertook to provide a specialised mental health regime to identify, treat and protect children under 18 years or at risk of mental illness. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=NENE (return)
36 The State in Ireland and the Church are prejudiced in regard to a person with mental illness. Denial applies. (return)
37 ‘The most sensible way to lower rates of depression and suicide is …to spread accurate information among the general public about what depression is’ Dr Fernandex (Amnesty) and St. Brendan’s Hospital; Breaking the Cycle of Depression; (Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell), The European Studies Institute. http://www.clinical-depression.co.uk (return)
38 see 37 (return)
39 17th September 2003: Psychiatrist Dr Kay Redfield Jamieson (US psychiatrist, a manic depressive) is in Ireland. New breakthrough relating to the prediction of suicide is announced. It involves hospital, an MRI scan, a Pet scan. The question is how probable it is that suicidal people will proceed through the functional medical channel. (return)
40 Dr Fernandez – Psychiatrist, St Brendan’s Psychiatric hospital, Dublin (return)
41 Serious findings: 70% re-admission each year. This strongly indicates hostile social situations: alcoholism, marital conflict, drug addicts etc. Each psychiatric admission involves a review of cocktail medications and monitoring. New drugs, new side effects, new body hostility limitations and re-adjustment. Each hospital admission means there is possibly a new psychiatric label, the range is manic depression to borderline personality disorder to manic depression. It is important to note that many doctors in psychiatric are in temporary postings and often from overseas (return)
42 Driven by former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Conservative Party) (return)
43 The social aspects, alcohol, drug abuse, family strife, lack of occupation to regain acceptance in a community. (return)
44 Irish Penal Reform Trust. Former President Ireland – Dr Mary Robinson dated December 2002 (return)
45 The Arts address the social issues. Jack Nicholson in One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest, and As Good as it Gets, drew considerable attention to institutional care and to obsessive compulsive disorder. A Beautiful Mind says so much more about Schizophrenia and brilliance. ‘Strangers’ can contribute. (return)
46 Interested patients, family members, professionals, advocates (return)
47 Similar stance by MHAI, Department of Health and Regional health boards (return) Education as distince from the workplace appealed to a number of ‘guinea pigs’ One student is accepted for her PhD in psychology; others opted for community projects in the arts. 48 (return)
49 This is real. It involves children; family court – referred to recently by a Judge as an Armageddon for children; the Catholic Church that acts without a cheecks and balances system provided by the State re people diagnosed with manic depression, schizophrenia. Proper education is essential. We are told that as many as one in four people will suffer from depression in their lifetime. (return)
50 Forfeiture of control of self, family affairs, the need of an ally as distinct from a carer to assuage the difference in personality and preent abusive use of power relations. Relatives seeking the advice from the medical team disempowers the individual. Mind – Respect campaign. Stigma reduced but inclusion is a different issue. Mental health provides no security for those within the Irish court system. The courts have power to seek discovery of documents in the context of divorce leaving the person with severe mental health problems discriminated against. The system is adversarial and damaging. The Annulment by the Catholic Church, a male dominated court again discriminates. (return)
51 Account must be taken that the stakeholder may be subject to health limitations that are greater at different times (return)
52 European social funds opened the gates in the 1990’s but a lack of understanding, prejudice, fear, shame, stigma resulted in people gaining access to Trinity College Dublin but health provisions not in place for crisis situations. Many students left without completing their degrees and more men than women (return)
53 Goya painted ‘the Madhouse’ ‘he must have experienced before that grovel of flesh in the void, that nakedness among bare walls, something related to a contemporary pathos; the symbolic tinsel that crowned the insane kings….left in view suppliant bodies, bodies vulnerable to chains and whips, which contradicted the delirium of the faces…The man in the tricorne is not made because he has stuck an old hat upon his nakedness…(Foucault 1967; 265) (return)
54 Perhaps Simmel perceived the Stranger as an individual – the outlier who would take the risk to restore an equilibrium(return)


Bibliography:

Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter. Dublin. Irish Division Report
Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter – Homelessness. Dublin. Irish Division Report
Banks, O. (ed) 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971. The Sociology of Education. B.T.
Barnes M, and Bowl R, 2001. Taking over the asylum – empowerment and mental health. Palgrave Press. Hampshire
Bursford Limited. Guildford, London, and Winchester.
Becker, H.. 1963. Outsiders Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. The Free Press. New York
Becker, P. and B. Becker 1974 (ed), Sociology: A Biographical Approach. Penguin: USA
Barnes n, and r bowl, Taking over the Asylum Empowerment and Mental Health: London:. Palgrave
Centre for Women Studies, 2003. National Flexi-Work Partnership Work-Life Balance Project. Dublin. University of Dublin.
Clare A, and Milligan, (ed) 1989, 1993. Depression and How to Survive it. London. Ebury Press.
Cohen, S. 2001. .States of Denial Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity press in association with Blackwell Publishing
Crossley, N. 2002. Making Sense of Social Movements. London: Open University press
Foucault, M. 1967. Madness and Civilisation. London: Ruthledge Publishers
Goffman, E. 1966, 1968, 1987, 1991. Asylums. London: Penquin.
Goffman, E. 1963, 1968, 1990 Stigma – Notes on the Management of Spoilt Identity. New Jersey: Penquin
Hunt, P, 1966. Stigma – The experience of Disabilility. Dublin. Geoffrey Chapman and Co.
Mathews, A and Gelder, M, and Johnston, D 1981 Agoraphobia Nature and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press
Millett, K. 1994. The Politics of Cruelty. An Essay on the Literature of Political Imprisonment. New York and London. W.W. Norton and Co.
McClung Lee, A, 1973. Toward Humanist Sociology. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Putnam, Robert D. Bowling Alone – The collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Touchstone.
Sayce, L. 2000. Fron Psychiatric Patient to Citizen – Overturn discrimination and Social Exlusion). London. Palgrave.


CAN MENTAL ILLNESS BE UNDERSTOOD AS A FORM OF SOCIAL DEVIANCE?

Written by: Michelle Clarke- September 2003

Mental illness must be first defined in the context of legislation.-1-  Account is required of the predominantly medical input and the challenge that is faced by Sociologists and other disciplines. It is the biomedical model that has made such an impact on our cultural ideas about the body. The body is determined to be well or ill.-2- This in turn reflects the attitudes and beliefs of people. History reflects its assumptions to interpretations of mental illness and these interpretations prove valid for some people still. Bio-medicine looks to the body and separates other aspects of the human being.-3- Herein lies the conflict necessary to invoke challenge and bring about change. The body is predominant: social, psychological and behavioural factors of the illness stand apart. The illness is pathologised and the disease is allocated to some part of the body (physical reductionism). -4- The Body is seen as the object of regime and control (Foucault, 1979).

This essay will review the historical social construction of mental illness – the pathologised version as enacted by legislation. It will review the myth imbibed by capitalism and science to the stigmatized illness that presently exists. I review the impact of fear as the powerful hidden component. Challenge exists and the entry of sociologists like Comte, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, to the Chicago School in 1924 like Goffman are discussed in terms of their approach to Deviance. The introduction of Social Movements in line with concept of civil rights in the 1960’s and taking hold in the UK from the 1980’s onwards. For the first time, we saw the opportunity for those designated ‘mentally’ ill to become stakeholders in their own future. The stage where the person who was once the patient (inmate) can refer to themselves as ‘survivor of mental illness’ or just survivor. Children, Education, Amnesty International, the United Nations, the EU and their Quality of Life research programmes are essential to provide the empowerment for the mentally ill to engage and disengage (with the understanding of people). This is vital. Only could those with mental illness have been so poorly treated and disregarded, if people conjured them as ‘deviant’ and not worth input.

Historical Social Construction of Mental illness – the assumptions
The ‘Struggle against Psychiatry’ has a long history. In 1620, the House of Lords received the ‘Petition of the Poor Distracted People in the House of Bedlam’ – the complaint was against inhumane treatment to the inmates. In 1845, the ‘Alleged Lunatics’ Friends Society was formed by ex-patients (Mind, 2003).-5-

The Middle Ages, saw the disappearance of leprosy in the Western World. Between the High Middle Ages and the end of the Crusades, leprosariums multiplied in the cities of Europe. The 17th century saw the creation of the houses of confinement established in Paris and other cities. Ironically, the Great Confinement made the human being – a social being and identity, subject to classification. It would have been economically viable to use the vacated buildings and to use them for the purpose of those held to be deviant, (Foucault,1967).

This period coincided with birth of Capitalism. Power and vanity became the new driving force. In England, the merchant class engaged in speculative ventures – those expectations driven by financial motivation involving commerce with emphasis on the emotions: fear and hope. Core to commerce is competition, envy and avarice and this has a price. The Renaissance period was the time of growth in individualism and this can incubate despotism. A schism arose in the Church dividing the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church.-6- The protestant work ethic, accumulation of capital, and a belief in a pre-destination created a suitable ethos to ignite in people the motivation required to embed Capitalism and class structure (Foucault, 1967: 74)

Mythology origin –Pathologised-Capitalism-Science

‘Suddenly, in a few years in the middle of the 18th century, a fear arose – a fear formulated in medical terms but animated, basically, by a moral myth’.
(Foucault, 1967: 192)

People were in ‘dread’ of a mysterious disease that spread from the houses of confinement that would soon threaten the cities. The disease became pathologised – fears, hallucinations, absent-mindedness all became identifiable symptoms.-7- (The symptoms in the footnote need to be seen in the context of what the Mental Health Act 2001 provides today). (Foucault, 1967: 199). Unreason and mental illness became intermingled. Unreason involves real fear. ‘Dread’ and the implications of fear compounded with the shame, stigma and ‘panopticism’ ensured segregation. Power and control enforce the dogma.

Contradiction and Challenge:-8-
Madness began to invoke thought. It became an issue of raising ‘the original truth’ but rather than it remaining hidden, this truth could ‘hang’ in history forever….This endorsed fear for some, both sides of the divide, but for different motives and different reasons. Fear and its internal impact and method of control and containment are hidden topics for discussion. The inference is weakness, the reality is fear can be used to control the vulnerable. Fear is pervasive in its implications.-9-

‘The truth of madness is what madness is…What madness is, is a form of vision that destroys itself by its own choice of oblivion in the face of existing forms of social tactics and strategy’ (Cooper, D. in Foucault, 1967: Intro)

The Reality is: Madness fascinates: The question stands – Is it madness or is it Vision?
‘It is of little importance on exactly which day in the autumn of 1888, Nietzche went mad for good, and after which his texts no longer afford philosophy but psychiatry: All of them, including the postcard to Strindberg, belong to Nietzche, And all are related to the Birth of Tragedy’. Our view of Nietzche is what he gave and continues to give to the Modern World’ (Blum, 273).

Sociologists’ Definition – Deviance:

‘Deviance always refers to conduct that is in violation of the rules
constructed by a given society or group. In other words, the concept of deviance implies a moral difference. It refers to the refusal or perhaps inability of an individual or group to abide by the moral norms that prevail in the social context in question’
(Berger and Berger, 1972: 305)

The group have defined the rules but the outsider remains outside looking in.-10- The outsider is the source of much speculation, scientific study and theorizing. The question is why does he not want to comply with societal rules?-11-

Sociology and its Origins
Sociology arose in the 19th century.-12- The basics of sociology related to the discovery of the laws of social order and the methodology required to maintain such order. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972)

Durkheim (1858-1917) understood deviance in terms of the functioning of society and deemed it preferable to study the society as distinct from individuals. The conduct of a person has categorized them in the minds of others. They are deviant and can be placed in a sub-category thereafter. In his book, Division of Labour, Durkheim highlighted the need for solidarity as people have an inherent need to belong. He wrote of the evolution from the basic operating mechanical society to the more organic society. Durkheim also researched and wrote ‘The Rules of Sociological Society’ in which he established the identity of sociology as distinct from psychological facts. Social facts represent ‘things’ – the approach is objective. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972).

Functionalism is the model applied by Durkheim and further progressed by Talcott Parsons in the US. Functionalism is closely applied to the medical model that promotes patient compliance and the bureaucratic structure to the services provided. Illness is seen as a social deviance when social expectations and norms are not achieved. Illness is an unnatural state hence the imperative function is to alleviate the person from it as quickly as possible. The assumption stands that stigma, shame and vulnerability pertain to many illnesses. Functionalists view health as a social commodity; a resource that is essential for individual achievement and the smooth performance of society (Annadale, 1998:10). The medical model is the Institution for Social Control.

Durkheim established views on Suicide and stated that this method of self-destruction was not only a personal tragedy but his findings were that it was a sociological consequence to which one is integrated in society – rare among married people, rarer in a more closely knit religious establishments and more frequent when rapid social change disrupts the social fabric. Social connectedness matters to our life in a profound way. Social networks reinforce healthy norms (Putnam, 2000).

Merton’s work has been productive in that it links with Durkheim’s concept of anomie and the analysis of social class. There have been investigations that link certain class positions to mental illness.

Weber examined the role of ideas in history; Marx focused on the economic aspects. Weber and Durkheim both reviewed the impact of Religion. Weber wrote on ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It was Georg Simmel who reviewed the role of the Stranger – the dyads and triads. Simmel sought to establish ‘a formal sociology’. These sociologists are European.-13-

Goffman links back to the Chicago School of the 1920’s – America.-14-
Deviance is measured against a perception as to what is reality. The perception of reality is that defined by Society. Perceptions differ, they change. Both normality and deviance are important components of ‘reality’. One must be aware that Society is protective against challenges as to how they define reality:-15-

‘The total institution is a social hybrid, part residential, part community, part formal organization, there in lies its special sociological interest’ (Goffman, 1968: 22)

Goffman engaged with the concept of symbolic interactionism. To Goffman, mental hospitals and prisons are ‘total institutions’. Stigma looks at how people actually cope with ‘spoilt identities’. He exhibits a strong feeling of compassion with the victims of negative ‘social designations’. (Goffman: 1961: 22)

Following the trend set by Mills and Goffman, ‘labelling theory’ emerged. Howard Becker is the most well known representative of this new school. It creates a platform for a hierarchy to develop permitting different levels of authority. It is about distinguishing the social worker from the sociologist, from the psychiatrist or the law enforcement officer from the Doctor. It is important to note that what is called deviant today may be deemed normal in the future.

Another aspect to consider about Deviance is that it is understood as simply one way in which people define a situation. It’s ‘reality’ depends upon the power of the people who do the defining to impose their definition upon others.-16-(Goffman, 1961).

Stigmatization in the context of Mental Illness ensures it is referred to as deviant – the modus operandi is a process which one group of people inflicts upon another. The definition will ‘stick’, depending upon the power of the definers. In that case, those who are thus defined, the stigmatized will have to come to terms both socially and psychologically with the ‘spoilt identity’.-17-

CHALLENGE TO SOCIOLOGISTS:-18-

Medicalisation dictates legislation. The 1945 Mental Health Act-19- was only altered in 2001 with much grassroots activity of social movements and charities at a variety of levels. The issue of Rights for the mentally ill remains in limbo in Ireland. However, social movements are in existence.

Social Movements – Nick Crossley
‘Social movements can be viewed as collective enterprises seeking to establish a new order of life…The career of a social movement depicts the emergence of a new order of life.
(Blumer 1969: 99)-20-

Contention Humanities versus Science – US Sociological View 1974
People Question – Can humanity survive with science so prevalent? Sociologists and other social scientists are divided in opinion as to how to best position themselves to address the science versus the humanities issue in the 20th century. The major challenges concern proceeding with research under subsidies from those in power or should they only be investigators committed solely to their own humanist goals. Can they merge both together was the issue? (McClung Lee, 1973)-21-. The reality is that if science provides the genetic proof, it still stands that triggers and environmental factors play a large part in mental illness.

Education – the key factor to effect change: Multiple intelligences exist yet the school curriculum is weighted against non scientific approach students.

Bourdieu defines the sociology of education ‘specifically in terms of its role in understanding; the contribution made by the education system to the reproduction of the structure of power relationships and symbolic relationships between classes’. (Banks, O, 1968:115)

View of Education – US 1974:

‘Students caught up willingly in the regimenting routines of such specialized trade schools and college as those of business, engineering and military, appear to be heedless to their dehumanization’ (McClung Lee, 1974 pg. 1)-22-

And

‘Our educational procedures are more often geared to the development of believers and technicians rather than independent investigators and thinkers
the mass culture that pervades’ (McClung Lee, 1974: 67)

Representation 1980’s: the approach was more that of a ‘consumerist’ for the patient as distinct from service users or survivor.

The objective is to create social inclusion for people diagnosed with a mental health problem.

Nottingham Advocacy Group was one of the first established in 1986. The movement was towards Survivors speaking out, having a voice and challenging false conceptions perpetuated through mythology and ignorance.

A forward thinking psychiatrist and his client – Dr. Anthony Clare, St. Patrick’s Hospital, Dublin and Spike Milligan, Writer, Comedian with a Manic Depression diagnosis, worked in conjunction to produce a book to provide evidence from both sides. The comparison was drawn that both Cancer and Mental illness are pathologised but the reaction is most likely one of shame in relation to depression, even though a severe depression is life-threatening illness. (Clare, Milligan, 1993).-23-

‘Images of madness in our culture make it starkly clear that it is best avoided or denied – not just because the experience can be alarming, but because it is hard to see oneself simultaneously as ‘crazy’ and as a valid person with a liveable future’ (Sayce, 2002: 8)-24-

‘It addresses one central question: how, and on what basis, do we move beyond the physical de-segregation of hospital closure programmes towards the chance of full participation in social and economic life’. (Sayce, 2002)-25-

Why penalize people who cannot work at 100% range or even a 50% range?-26- Cordis, cordis.europa.eu/ an arm of the EU is currently researching Quality of Life perspectives.-27- Demographics may cause policy makers to change their attitudes and view people as potential (albeit limited) contributors to taxation.

Empowerment and mental health – the need for ‘Academics with Attitude’ .
This is a movement of ‘passive recipients’ to ‘active subjects’. The approach is to challenge the way we think about ‘mental illness’ mental health and what it means to live with madness. -28-(Barnes, 2001; bowl; 2001:). This is about Changing Attitudes. Mind in the UK run successful campaigns like 1 in 4, with descriptive footage of a severely depressed person. These are areas that need consideration. Essential is the use of the internet and system of email both for self-knowledge and innovative type work consistent with ‘diagnosis’.

Points to realistically consider:
Integration implies the individual will fit in with the system
The person has to change. Inclusion means that system itself will develop self-criticism; acknowledge the way in which it excludes and denies access; and dismantle barriers (Shakespeare 1997 in Sayce 31). -29- Anxiety – Valium, Librium – the wonder drugs-30- of the 1960’s are addictive. Consultants are afraid of insurance actions so are much more controlled in what they prescribe. There is no alternative now for the patient with anxiety i.e. except cigarettes/alcohol. Public policy is to prevent smoking in public places. Both cigarettes and tranquilizers are being restricted at the same time. This has implications for increased intake of alcohol. Mental illness also must be described as a physical illness. There is a need to have the service user as a stakeholder in policy making.-31-

Power of Language – Control
‘Language is itself a site of struggle and one of the purposes of user or survivor movements is to reclaim the right to define and name their own experiences’.-32-

Perspective
‘The emphasis on science is important. First it implies that the origin of mental illness and the role of intervention can be studied using the methods of observation and logical inference that form the basis of natural science. As such it is based on ‘fact’, not value, and its definition is seen as independent of Culture or social context.-33- This has both a political and organizational implications. It provides justification for the separation of medicine as a discipline and the retention of power over defining and treating mental illness outside political and popular control……Medicine has a non precise definition .

Reduction of stigma and discrimination is starting to appear high on the public policy agenda in a number of countries. The Australian Government have a major Education programme in place. The New Zealand government have adopted a programme based on studies into other marginalized groups e.g. HIV/Aids.

More Enlightened approach – World Perspective
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights encompasses
civil, political, economic and cultural rights.-34-

Community care is deemed more humane than inpatient stays. Ireland, Israel, Netherlands and Spain have 80-90% of the beds in psychiatric hospitals, France, Germany and Japan have 60-75% occupancy in psychiatric hospitals. The difference is found in Australia, Canada and the USA at 40%. (World Health Organisation page 17)

Amnesty International Ireland www.amnesty.ie/mentalhealth. Sociologically challenges Ireland’s treatment of the mentally ill. (The News on mental health issues from around the world) reports:-)

‘The support for children with, or at risk of mental health from successive Irish governments has not been adequate. The Amnesty publication, Mental Health – the Neglected Quarter, has as its objectives to increase awareness that children’s mental health is a human rights issue, to place this fact firmly before Government, and to lobby much needed reform in Government policy, practice and legislation (Sean Love, Director of Amnesty’s Irish Section).-35-

Gender issues/cultural issues – social factors:
Mental illness must be about multi-disciplinary teams. Psychiatrists opened up to the inclusion of psychology over the past 20 years and it is stated that if trigger events can be limited in a person susceptible to mental illness, and particularly after one event only, it is probable that they will avoid major mental health issues (Aware lecture 2003).www.aware.ie.  75% of those who commit suicide are men.-36- Black men have above average admittance in to psychiatric hospital in the UK and also to high security areas. Most divorces and separations are started by women and fathers tend to lose contact with their children. There is growing evidence that unemployment has an impact on mental. These are social issues impacting on family structure and society: http//www.mind.org/Information/Factsheets/Men/.

THE WAY FORWARD (Denial, Stigma, Shame, Education, Multi-disciplinary teams, Respect for difference)

Education is core to understanding and change.
‘The traditional conceptual framework in the subject is that of functionalism, and derives primarily from the writings of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. The functionalist approach, as Durkheim used it, is to seek for the social function performed by an institution; that is for the part played by the institution in the promotion and maintenance of social cohesion and social unity’. (page etc).

Durkheim referred to the ‘socialization of the young generation’. He sought to imbibe the young generation with values and certain intellectual and physical skills.-37-

The Bright Futures Initiative –
In 1997, the Mental Health Organisation in the UK undertook a major study into the mental health of children and young people. They reviewed the requirements for the emotional and healthy development of children. The 1999 reports Bright Futures was published. Factors that cause children to be susceptible include poverty, poor housing, parental conflict, parental psychiatric problems and abuse.-38- It acknowledges the importance of early intervention. Other reports include The Mental Health of Young Offenders, August 2002 and the Mental Health of Looked After Children, August 2002. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=PIBF -39-

Dr. Fernandez (Amnesty Member),-40- states the need to distinguish between ‘’mental health problems’’ induced by homelessness and ‘’mental illness’’ that may be a factor in becoming or remaining homeless (Amnesty International, 2003: 17). Psychiatric and rehabilitative services but with limited funding are provided at St. Brendan’s Psychiatric Hospital. The main objective is to ‘preserve and regain social function’. The separation from the rest of society in large institutions only ensures exclusion.-41-

IRELAND – Equality and the system of education are formally challenged. It is not inclusive. Is there a link to Mental Illness! Is the scope of the curriculum broad enough?

4500 are now hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals in Ireland. This has reduced from over 21,000 in 1958. By the 1980’s, institutions were costing large sums of money and government policy sought alternatives. Market forces determined the 1980’s de-institutionalisation policies.-42- In the year 2000, admissions were over 20,000 however the issue to be concerned about is that 70% of these were re-admissions. This speaks volumes about the recurrent nature.-43- Dr. Kennedy from Central Mental Hospital in a presentation made a point of the differentiation between those problems that were social i.e. over 80% and those that were psychiatric.-44-

‘To speak of the unspeakable is the beginning of action’ (Millett, 1994)-45-
Who is willing to listen, to hear, to activate change? The Irish psychiatric policy is based on the consumer model and thus adopted by the social movement organizations e.g. Aware and Schizophrenia Ireland. The approach is Top-Down as distinct from user-led action.

‘It is possible to propose a theoretical framework which moves the sociological perspective on from limitations inherent in other sociological traditions within the sociology of health and illness literature, such as psychiatry as a social system (Foucault 1965), or the deviance or the Marxian approaches of Scheff (1999 or Scull (1979 respectively‘ (Speed, E, 2002, 64).  Irish peculiarities mean the model requires adaptation.

Schizophrenia Ireland was set up in 1981. http://www.sirl.ie/other/repository_docs/13.pdf -46- Aware, the voluntary organization was established in 1985.  Aware Ireland, Sanewww.sane.org.uk in the UK and NAMI https://www.nami.org/ in America support the biological basis of mental ‘illness’. Aware is involved in the ‘promotion of research into biological, psychological and social aspects of Depression’ (Aware, 2001).-47- The Minister of Health has put in place an appointed study group to review analytically psychiatric services and community based service (Foreward iii) is now in place.

‘There has been a lack of any concerted mental health service users’ movement within the Republic of Ireland. Mental Health service users’ movements have a marked orientation towards strategies of empowerment and the provision of peer advocacy and support mental health service users’ (Speede, 2002). This is only acceptable if the objective is to change educational policy and introduce multi-disciplinary teams to work in the best interests of the service-user. If this occurs and with the distinct advantage of the internet, survivors can become empowered.

Research – What do we know? What does the future hold?

1997 The Trinity Horizon Project of the Centre of Women Studies covered a period of 4 years and developed a pro-type training and counseling programme for the women recovering from depression to facilitate their re-entry to the workplace. The research was carried out in collaboration with Aware, IBEC, ICTU and FAS.

The stance was from the humanitarian and social perspective. This was aimed at creating survivors. It was concerned with confronting the hidden secret associated with mental illness, dealing with the stigma that pertained and to emphasize just how under-resourced mental health services are. Funds were provided by the EU. A conference was held by the Trinity Horizon project – titled Mental Health and the Workplace: Challenges and Opportunites. It had access to transnational models – this provided a cross cultural dimension. Norbert Tietz, Director, EX+JOB in Wunstorf, Germany.

Immediately receptive is the term social firm. The firm was based on a philosophy of work and part of this was about integration of the participants with the public. Work experience included bar/restaurant work open to the public, fridge recycling plant, used children’s clothes shops, furniture shop and a music shop. The innovation of work came from the community as a whole in collaboration with the psychiatric hospital. The re-cycling dimension proved very successful. It appealed on the environmentally friendly factor. German companies must employ 6% of people with disabilities. If they choose not to pay, they must pay and fine and the money is paid into a fund for people with disabilities.

Professor McKeon, Psychiatrist of St. Patrick’s hospital and founding member of Aware reiterated that people with mental health difficulties, especially those with depression, make excellent employees. If anything, he stressed that this group with their over-anxiety to do well are exemplary employees. ‘Their exaggerated sense of responsibility and loyalty, traits which sometimes contribute to their difficulties, are positive elements for an employer. They are the first at work and have a commitment to any task they undertake. In dealing with their illness, they have already proven their ability to face and overcome difficulties and demonstrated their tenacity and courage’ (Trinity Horizon Project, Centre for Women Studies, 2000: viii)-48-

Yet, such a daring programme proved too expensive for the NRB to undertake. The NRB was subsequently subsumed into FAS – no rehabilitative programme as per the research was in put place yet. In fact, community employment which provided a meager alternative, but an alternative form of rehabilitation is being drastically cut back by Government policy.

CONCLUSION

National Policy framework – stakeholders – Survivors. Rights based Mental Health legislation is needed. Expenditure in psychiatric services has been reduced since 1976 by 20%. Mental illness is about social implications, coping strategies, psychological services and engaging with denial, particularly within the family context.-49- Power and control needs to be monitored.-50- Mental illness merits a consensual approach if people are to be integrated in society. Social workers need to interact with sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, educationalists, and most important in line with the wisdom of Carl Jung, Psychiatrist, Psychologist – they must involve the patient. -51-The Trinity Horizon Research proved too costly an approach but a new direction and approach is in place the National Flexi-Work Partnership Work-Life Balance Project

Comte named a new dimension called sociology; Durkheim elaborated and defined society as an integrated whole; Weber, shared Durkheim’s interest in religions and structure but also was concerned with ideals; and Simmel spoke of the ‘Stranger’. The intervening years saw institutionalization, medicalisation, of people who are ‘Different’. Why should an idealist be different, there might be a latent talent, that is inhibited by structure yet innovation lies there untapped. The challenge rests with Education and incorporation of a broader syllabus, to the Universities to take in hand those non-conformists and educate them and add the dimension to their education,-52- and the education of other students. People are mental health survivors but they must be given a chance. Denial, stigma, shame, must be removed and if it takes the conflict of referring to a person as socially deviant, for the reaction to come – ‘but no you are not in horror’. This is the step forward to dealing with denial. This is reality brought about by fear that no-one cares to acknowledge – hence the suicides are dismissed in shame, in silence, in fear. The medical profession live in fear that they too ‘will break the threshold’ that applies to every human being. This can be intuitively sensed from them. Sociologists need to take stock of the heritage of their founding fathers – perhaps it is time not to seek the credibility of being totally scientific and consider a more humanistic, open, consensual and interactive approach and work within multi-disciplinary teams with the objective of improving society.-53-

My parting comment is about Suicide. Dr. Kelly, (Iraq war 2003) leading scientist in search of nuclear arms in Iraq had the choice to conform to the status quo – to have his knuckles wrapped. He was an individual, deliberated, he knew the outcome if he conformed. Perhaps the issue is – could he have lived with his conscience? Durkheim reviewed suicide in this context. Yet our society does not see that people differ, a ‘Stranger’, -54-holding intuitive sentiments similar to what Shakespeare wrote in Hamlet ‘there is something rotten in the State of Denmark.

March 2015-Contextualised over a decade:  Deviance is deviance surely not as defined by mental health.  The shocking murder of Elaine O’Hara by a man who was socially deviant and so arrogant that he believed he could not be convicted and who was not going to use the defence of Insanity.
Dwyer did not plead insanity. He is found guilty of Murder. He preyed on a vulnerable woman called Elaine O’Hara who had been admitted to Ireland’s most elite psychiatric hospital, St Edmundsbury, on 14 occasions, under the most eminent of psychiatrists including Dr Anthony Clare. The paradox, the person with a mental illness the victim of society’s inability to provide for her mental health need and the murderer, the narcissist, the psychopath, devoid of conscience who saw vulnerable women as objects for his gratification. The question is will people abuse the term mental health and include him as mentally ill. I sincerely hope not. This social deviance stands apart from what mental illness is about. Again I say lets use the term Manic Depression again instead of the sanitised Bipolar. The manic applies to the high but also to the low.


Endnotes

1 An act to provide the involuntary admission to approved centres of persons suffering from mental disorders, to provide for the involuntary admission of such persons and, for the those purposes, to provide for the establishment of a Mental Health Commission and the appointment of Mental Health Commission tribunals and an Inspector of Mental Health Services, to repeal in part the Mental Treatment Act 1945 and to provide for related matters. “Mental Illness” means a state of mind of a person which affects the person’s thinking, perceiving, emotion and judgement and which seriously impairs the mental functions of the person to the extent that he or she requires care and medical treatment in his or her own interest or in the interest of other persons (Mental Health Act 2001)(return)
2 Distribution of wellness and illness throughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
3 Western medicine: science puts forward the belief that the body is separate from the mind and spirit (return)
4 Etiology is about identifying causes for each disease and scourcing cures. A machine capable of repair is the metaphor (return)
5 Exhibitions of inmates would be held and people paid to see those deemed ‘Mad’ (return)
6 Certain earlier sociologists particularly Durkheim and Weber, who carried out considerable research into different religions, linked it closely with the regimented system of values and rules relating to societies (return)
7 It was confinement of the debauched; the spendthrift fathers; prodigal sons; blasphemers, men who “seek to undo themselves”, libertines….One tenth of all the arrests were in Paris for the Hospital General concern “the insane”< “demented” men< individuals of “wandering mind” and persons who have become “completely mad” Foucault, 1967). No mention of alcohol or drugs. (return)
8 Lord Byron: Van Gogh; Churchill; Don Quioxte; Goya personalised mood distortion to black periods. Churchill referred to “Black Dog”. Aware St Patrick’s Hospital run a website titled “Black Dog” (return)
9 ‘Fear of fear refers to the anticipation of anxiety and thoughts that the mental and physical symptoms of anxiety will lead to worse consequences – a thought that in turn generates more anxiety. For example, mounting feelings of anxiety often make the patient anticipate that he or she will lose control and behave in a dis-inhibited way, or even become insane; while rapid heart action may lead the patient to expect a cardiac arrest or coronary thrombosis (Mathews A, Gelder M, Johnston D, 1981:5) (return)
10 Normal personality: how to define it? Perhaps – efficient self perception, realistic self-esteem and acceptance; voluntary control over behaviour; a true perception of the world; sustaining relationships and giving affection; self direction and productivity (Social psychology notes 2nd yr Business Economics and Social Studies Trinity notes (return)
11 Having been institutionalised and detache from society on numerous occasions, you are the outsider looking in (personal comment). Some explanations of psychosis use these exact words’ (return)
12 The name ‘Sociology’ was invented by Auguste Comete (1798-1857) – Philosophy (Positivism) (return)
13 Robert Merton sought to explain deviant behaviour in terms of social structure. He puts forward the idea that all forms of deviant behaviour ‘from differentials in the access to the success goals of a society by legitimate means….Deviance thus occurs as a result of discrepancy between the aspirations which society has socialised into its members and the way that society has provided for realising such aspirations. Merton uses the Durkheimian concept of anomie to refer to such a situation’. This reflects the goal oriented, materialistic strain in America (return)
14 Malfunction appears to determine deviance. ‘Agoraphobia is illness because one should not be afraid of open spaces. Homosexuality is illness because heterosexuality is the social norm. Divorce is illness because it signals failure of marriage….all these and many more have been said to be signs of mental illness (Berger 1963:6) (return)
15 It was then and still is my belief that any group of persons – prisoners, primitives, pilots, or patients – develop a life of their own that becomes meaningful, reasonable and normal once you get close to it, and that a good way to learn about any of these worlds is to submit oneself in the company of the members to the daily round of petty contingencies to which they are subject (Goffman) (return)
16 Mental illness/mood disorder is about lapses to weakness in moral and physical health – this inherent vulnerability is exploited (this includes family; employers, corporates, insurance companies, regimented bodies like education, the legal profession; the Church; non conformists too are not acceptable. Yet medical ethics was horrifically breached by Mengele with use of humans for scientific experiments (NAZI Germany) (return)
17 Victor Frankl (1962) Survivor from Auchwitz (Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Logotherapist, writer. ‘When we describe a responsible person we mean that in every area of his life he is able to meet the demands of this world’. Logotherapy concerns expanding the scope of visions (psychologically) for the patient. Here is the challenge to society. (return)
18 Comment from House of Lords UK: Quite evidently explanations for mental illness and institutionalisation were unclear to those engaged in scrutiny “As we get to know more about the complexity of the human mind, so we try to make our shades of responsibility more complext, and so I thing we get into deeper and deeper muddles Baroness Wootton of Abiger, House of Lords 1962 (return)
19 Irish 1945 Act was based on the earlier English legislation (return)
20 Examples include: Mind UK, (Aware, Grow, Irish Mental Health Advocacy in Ireland and Ireland Mental Health Association of Ireland etc) (return)
21 This was 1974. Now in the UK it is the medical profession who are linking to Humanities for medical conferences (return)
22 What about the social impact of science on man as a social creature? The most obvious is the impact of domestic gadgetry, healt-care facilities, urban and industrial structures and the ultimate threat of nuclear war (McClung Lee, 1974) (return)
23 Surprisingly I sought the implication and definition of fear in his book – there was none. Doctors have an issue with fear (return)
24 Denial is corrosive. Aware now operate a ‘Beat the Blues’ campaign in secondary schools. This is successful. Parents may have very fixed interpretations and refuse to encourage a child to engage at the expense of the child. (return)
25 This book includes several sources including the survivors together with lawyers, policy makers, activists, medical health professions. Primarily the research was completed in the US and UK in the late 1990’s. Reference is made to systems in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. (return)
26 Vincent Van Gogh. His pre-occupation was to give, not to receive financially. His paintings were sold after his death and amrketing applied to accumulate worth. The same applied to letters he wrote. He was socially oriented. (return)
27 Presently, the Centre for Women Studies in Trinity College Dublin are carrying out research which is part of the Equal Community Initiative and the European Social Fund. It involves a mental health advisory committee. University of Dublin; Aware: Age Action; IBEC; Congress of Trade Unions; FAS and mental health survivors will convene over the next two years. The June meeting was a bilateral meeting: Working party of employers and the Mental Health Advisory group including mental health survivors. The focus is National Flexi work – Work Life Balance. (return)
28 Marian Barnes is a member of National Health Action Zone evaluation team focusing on community involvement. (return)
29 ‘People who are seriously disadvantaged in society rarely have just single problems – they have multiple interlocking problems. They do not compete on a level playing field. Empowerment must address all their problems together if it is to be meaningful’. (Davy, 1999, 37) (return)
30 Drugs have side affects; muscle wastage ensures body weakness; anorexia/bulimia can be side affects related to mood disorder or just a manifestation of self-harm, vision, co-ordination, perception, judgment, attention deficits etc (return)
31 The Barr Tribunal (John Carthy RIP): Labeled a Manic Depressive. Somehow anxiety has been removed from language of mental health otherwise he would likely not have been shot dead by An Gardai Siochana. Anxiety drugs (Benzos) are now causing negative reporting as they are deemed too addictive and there are basically no alternatives. It could be said that the cigarettes were used to taunt John Carthy RIP, cigarettes could have calmed his anxiety. Many people go contrary to regulations and even legislation especially relating to drugs and alcohol to help them cope with stress, anxiety, depression. This is a social issue and was addressed by Dr Harry Kennedy (Psychiatrist) who has accommodation problems at the Central Mental Hospital. It is linked to crime. (return)
32 Mental Act of England and Wales defines ‘Mental Disorder’ as mental illness, personality disorder, severe mental impairment. (return)
33 Perhaps this should mean it is a component part of a spectrum that deals with those diagnosed mentally ill. A more equitable distribution of funds in terms of time input would be required. hroughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
34 All persons have the right to the best available mental health care, which shall be part of the health and social care system. MI Principle Amnesty Mental Health Report – the Neglected Quarter). (return)
35 Ireland ratified the UN Convention on Rights of the Child in 1992, whereby it undertook to provide a specialised mental health regime to identify, treat and protect children under 18 years or at risk of mental illness. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=NENE (return)
36 The State in Ireland and the Church are prejudiced in regard to a person with mental illness. Denial applies. (return)
37 ‘The most sensible way to lower rates of depression and suicide is …to spread accurate information among the general public about what depression is’ Dr Fernandex (Amnesty) and St. Brendan’s Hospital; Breaking the Cycle of Depression; (Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell), The European Studies Institute. http://www.clinical-depression.co.uk (return)
38 see 37 (return)
39 17th September 2003: Psychiatrist Dr Kay Redfield Jamieson (US psychiatrist, a manic depressive) is in Ireland. New breakthrough relating to the prediction of suicide is announced. It involves hospital, an MRI scan, a Pet scan. The question is how probable it is that suicidal people will proceed through the functional medical channel. (return)
40 Dr Fernandez – Psychiatrist, St Brendan’s Psychiatric hospital, Dublin (return)
41 Serious findings: 70% re-admission each year. This strongly indicates hostile social situations: alcoholism, marital conflict, drug addicts etc. Each psychiatric admission involves a review of cocktail medications and monitoring. New drugs, new side effects, new body hostility limitations and re-adjustment. Each hospital admission means there is possibly a new psychiatric label, the range is manic depression to borderline personality disorder to manic depression. It is important to note that many doctors in psychiatric are in temporary postings and often from overseas (return)
42 Driven by former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Conservative Party) (return)
43 The social aspects, alcohol, drug abuse, family strife, lack of occupation to regain acceptance in a community. (return)
44 Irish Penal Reform Trust. Former President Ireland – Dr Mary Robinson dated December 2002 (return)
45 The Arts address the social issues. Jack Nicholson in One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest, and As Good as it Gets, drew considerable attention to institutional care and to obsessive compulsive disorder. A Beautiful Mind says so much more about Schizophrenia and brilliance. ‘Strangers’ can contribute. (return)
46 Interested patients, family members, professionals, advocates (return)
47 Similar stance by MHAI, Department of Health and Regional health boards (return) Education as distince from the workplace appealed to a number of ‘guinea pigs’ One student is accepted for her PhD in psychology; others opted for community projects in the arts. 48 (return)
49 This is real. It involves children; family court – referred to recently by a Judge as an Armageddon for children; the Catholic Church that acts without a cheecks and balances system provided by the State re people diagnosed with manic depression, schizophrenia. Proper education is essential. We are told that as many as one in four people will suffer from depression in their lifetime. (return)
50 Forfeiture of control of self, family affairs, the need of an ally as distinct from a carer to assuage the difference in personality and preent abusive use of power relations. Relatives seeking the advice from the medical team disempowers the individual. Mind – Respect campaign. Stigma reduced but inclusion is a different issue. Mental health provides no security for those within the Irish court system. The courts have power to seek discovery of documents in the context of divorce leaving the person with severe mental health problems discriminated against. The system is adversarial and damaging. The Annulment by the Catholic Church, a male dominated court again discriminates. (return)
51 Account must be taken that the stakeholder may be subject to health limitations that are greater at different times (return)
52 European social funds opened the gates in the 1990’s but a lack of understanding, prejudice, fear, shame, stigma resulted in people gaining access to Trinity College Dublin but health provisions not in place for crisis situations. Many students left without completing their degrees and more men than women (return)
53 Goya painted ‘the Madhouse’ ‘he must have experienced before that grovel of flesh in the void, that nakedness among bare walls, something related to a contemporary pathos; the symbolic tinsel that crowned the insane kings….left in view suppliant bodies, bodies vulnerable to chains and whips, which contradicted the delirium of the faces…The man in the tricorne is not made because he has stuck an old hat upon his nakedness…(Foucault 1967; 265) (return)
54 Perhaps Simmel perceived the Stranger as an individual – the outlier who would take the risk to restore an equilibrium(return)


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Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter. Dublin. Irish Division Report
Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter – Homelessness. Dublin. Irish Division Report
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CAN MENTAL ILLNESS BE UNDERSTOOD AS A FORM OF SOCIAL DEVIANCE?

Written by: Michelle Clarke- September 2003 (Hard copy available on request which contains footnotes).

Mental illness must be first defined in the context of legislation.-1-  Account is required of the predominantly medical input and the challenge that is faced by Sociologists and other disciplines. It is the biomedical model that has made such an impact on our cultural ideas about the body. The body is determined to be well or ill.-2- This in turn reflects the attitudes and beliefs of people. History reflects its assumptions to interpretations of mental illness and these interpretations prove valid for some people still. Bio-medicine looks to the body and separates other aspects of the human being.-3- Herein lies the conflict necessary to invoke challenge and bring about change. The body is predominant: social, psychological and behavioural factors of the illness stand apart. The illness is pathologised and the disease is allocated to some part of the body (physical reductionism). -4- The Body is seen as the object of regime and control (Foucault, 1979).

This essay will review the historical social construction of mental illness – the pathologised version as enacted by legislation. It will review the myth imbibed by capitalism and science to the stigmatized illness that presently exists. I review the impact of fear as the powerful hidden component. Challenge exists and the entry of sociologists like Comte, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, to the Chicago School in 1924 like Goffman are discussed in terms of their approach to Deviance. The introduction of Social Movements in line with concept of civil rights in the 1960’s and taking hold in the UK from the 1980’s onwards. For the first time, we saw the opportunity for those designated ‘mentally’ ill to become stakeholders in their own future. The stage where the person who was once the patient (inmate) can refer to themselves as ‘survivor of mental illness’ or just survivor. Children, Education, Amnesty International, the United Nations, the EU and their Quality of Life research programmes are essential to provide the empowerment for the mentally ill to engage and disengage (with the understanding of people). This is vital. Only could those with mental illness have been so poorly treated and disregarded, if people conjured them as ‘deviant’ and not worth input.

Historical Social Construction of Mental illness – the assumptions
The ‘Struggle against Psychiatry’ has a long history. In 1620, the House of Lords received the ‘Petition of the Poor Distracted People in the House of Bedlam’ – the complaint was against inhumane treatment to the inmates. In 1845, the ‘Alleged Lunatics’ Friends Society was formed by ex-patients (Mind, 2003).-5-

The Middle Ages, saw the disappearance of leprosy in the Western World. Between the High Middle Ages and the end of the Crusades, leprosariums multiplied in the cities of Europe. The 17th century saw the creation of the houses of confinement established in Paris and other cities. Ironically, the Great Confinement made the human being – a social being and identity, subject to classification. It would have been economically viable to use the vacated buildings and to use them for the purpose of those held to be deviant, (Foucault,1967).

This period coincided with birth of Capitalism. Power and vanity became the new driving force. In England, the merchant class engaged in speculative ventures – those expectations driven by financial motivation involving commerce with emphasis on the emotions: fear and hope. Core to commerce is competition, envy and avarice and this has a price. The Renaissance period was the time of growth in individualism and this can incubate despotism. A schism arose in the Church dividing the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church.-6- The protestant work ethic, accumulation of capital, and a belief in a pre-destination created a suitable ethos to ignite in people the motivation required to embed Capitalism and class structure (Foucault, 1967: 74)

Mythology origin –Pathologised-Capitalism-Science

‘Suddenly, in a few years in the middle of the 18th century, a fear arose – a fear formulated in medical terms but animated, basically, by a moral myth’.
(Foucault, 1967: 192)

People were in ‘dread’ of a mysterious disease that spread from the houses of confinement that would soon threaten the cities. The disease became pathologised – fears, hallucinations, absent-mindedness all became identifiable symptoms.-7- (The symptoms in the footnote need to be seen in the context of what the Mental Health Act 2001 provides today). (Foucault, 1967: 199). Unreason and mental illness became intermingled. Unreason involves real fear. ‘Dread’ and the implications of fear compounded with the shame, stigma and ‘panopticism’ ensured segregation. Power and control enforce the dogma.

Contradiction and Challenge:-8-
Madness began to invoke thought. It became an issue of raising ‘the original truth’ but rather than it remaining hidden, this truth could ‘hang’ in history forever….This endorsed fear for some, both sides of the divide, but for different motives and different reasons. Fear and its internal impact and method of control and containment are hidden topics for discussion. The inference is weakness, the reality is fear can be used to control the vulnerable. Fear is pervasive in its implications.-9-

‘The truth of madness is what madness is…What madness is, is a form of vision that destroys itself by its own choice of oblivion in the face of existing forms of social tactics and strategy’ (Cooper, D. in Foucault, 1967: Intro)

The Reality is: Madness fascinates: The question stands – Is it madness or is it Vision?
‘It is of little importance on exactly which day in the autumn of 1888, Nietzche went mad for good, and after which his texts no longer afford philosophy but psychiatry: All of them, including the postcard to Strindberg, belong to Nietzche, And all are related to the Birth of Tragedy’. Our view of Nietzche is what he gave and continues to give to the Modern World’ (Blum, 273).

Sociologists’ Definition – Deviance:

‘Deviance always refers to conduct that is in violation of the rules
constructed by a given society or group. In other words, the concept of deviance implies a moral difference. It refers to the refusal or perhaps inability of an individual or group to abide by the moral norms that prevail in the social context in question’
(Berger and Berger, 1972: 305)

The group have defined the rules but the outsider remains outside looking in.-10- The outsider is the source of much speculation, scientific study and theorizing. The question is why does he not want to comply with societal rules?-11-

Sociology and its Origins
Sociology arose in the 19th century.-12- The basics of sociology related to the discovery of the laws of social order and the methodology required to maintain such order. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972)

Durkheim (1858-1917) understood deviance in terms of the functioning of society and deemed it preferable to study the society as distinct from individuals. The conduct of a person has categorized them in the minds of others. They are deviant and can be placed in a sub-category thereafter. In his book, Division of Labour, Durkheim highlighted the need for solidarity as people have an inherent need to belong. He wrote of the evolution from the basic operating mechanical society to the more organic society. Durkheim also researched and wrote ‘The Rules of Sociological Society’ in which he established the identity of sociology as distinct from psychological facts. Social facts represent ‘things’ – the approach is objective. (Berger, 1972; Berger, 1972).

Functionalism is the model applied by Durkheim and further progressed by Talcott Parsons in the US. Functionalism is closely applied to the medical model that promotes patient compliance and the bureaucratic structure to the services provided. Illness is seen as a social deviance when social expectations and norms are not achieved. Illness is an unnatural state hence the imperative function is to alleviate the person from it as quickly as possible. The assumption stands that stigma, shame and vulnerability pertain to many illnesses. Functionalists view health as a social commodity; a resource that is essential for individual achievement and the smooth performance of society (Annadale, 1998:10). The medical model is the Institution for Social Control.

Durkheim established views on Suicide and stated that this method of self-destruction was not only a personal tragedy but his findings were that it was a sociological consequence to which one is integrated in society – rare among married people, rarer in a more closely knit religious establishments and more frequent when rapid social change disrupts the social fabric. Social connectedness matters to our life in a profound way. Social networks reinforce healthy norms (Putnam, 2000).

Merton’s work has been productive in that it links with Durkheim’s concept of anomie and the analysis of social class. There have been investigations that link certain class positions to mental illness.

Weber examined the role of ideas in history; Marx focused on the economic aspects. Weber and Durkheim both reviewed the impact of Religion. Weber wrote on ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It was Georg Simmel who reviewed the role of the Stranger – the dyads and triads. Simmel sought to establish ‘a formal sociology’. These sociologists are European.-13-

Goffman links back to the Chicago School of the 1920’s – America.-14-
Deviance is measured against a perception as to what is reality. The perception of reality is that defined by Society. Perceptions differ, they change. Both normality and deviance are important components of ‘reality’. One must be aware that Society is protective against challenges as to how they define reality:-15-

‘The total institution is a social hybrid, part residential, part community, part formal organization, there in lies its special sociological interest’ (Goffman, 1968: 22)

Goffman engaged with the concept of symbolic interactionism. To Goffman, mental hospitals and prisons are ‘total institutions’. Stigma looks at how people actually cope with ‘spoilt identities’. He exhibits a strong feeling of compassion with the victims of negative ‘social designations’. (Goffman: 1961: 22)

Following the trend set by Mills and Goffman, ‘labelling theory’ emerged. Howard Becker is the most well known representative of this new school. It creates a platform for a hierarchy to develop permitting different levels of authority. It is about distinguishing the social worker from the sociologist, from the psychiatrist or the law enforcement officer from the Doctor. It is important to note that what is called deviant today may be deemed normal in the future.

Another aspect to consider about Deviance is that it is understood as simply one way in which people define a situation. It’s ‘reality’ depends upon the power of the people who do the defining to impose their definition upon others.-16-(Goffman, 1961).

Stigmatization in the context of Mental Illness ensures it is referred to as deviant – the modus operandi is a process which one group of people inflicts upon another. The definition will ‘stick’, depending upon the power of the definers. In that case, those who are thus defined, the stigmatized will have to come to terms both socially and psychologically with the ‘spoilt identity’.-17-

CHALLENGE TO SOCIOLOGISTS:-18-

Medicalisation dictates legislation. The 1945 Mental Health Act-19- was only altered in 2001 with much grassroots activity of social movements and charities at a variety of levels. The issue of Rights for the mentally ill remains in limbo in Ireland. However, social movements are in existence.

Social Movements – Nick Crossley
‘Social movements can be viewed as collective enterprises seeking to establish a new order of life…The career of a social movement depicts the emergence of a new order of life.
(Blumer 1969: 99)-20-

Contention Humanities versus Science – US Sociological View 1974
People Question – Can humanity survive with science so prevalent? Sociologists and other social scientists are divided in opinion as to how to best position themselves to address the science versus the humanities issue in the 20th century. The major challenges concern proceeding with research under subsidies from those in power or should they only be investigators committed solely to their own humanist goals. Can they merge both together was the issue? (McClung Lee, 1973)-21-. The reality is that if science provides the genetic proof, it still stands that triggers and environmental factors play a large part in mental illness.

Education – the key factor to effect change: Multiple intelligences exist yet the school curriculum is weighted against non scientific approach students.

Bourdieu defines the sociology of education ‘specifically in terms of its role in understanding; the contribution made by the education system to the reproduction of the structure of power relationships and symbolic relationships between classes’. (Banks, O, 1968:115)

View of Education – US 1974:

‘Students caught up willingly in the regimenting routines of such specialized trade schools and college as those of business, engineering and military, appear to be heedless to their dehumanization’ (McClung Lee, 1974 pg. 1)-22-

And

‘Our educational procedures are more often geared to the development of believers and technicians rather than independent investigators and thinkers
the mass culture that pervades’ (McClung Lee, 1974: 67)

Representation 1980’s: the approach was more that of a ‘consumerist’ for the patient as distinct from service users or survivor.

The objective is to create social inclusion for people diagnosed with a mental health problem.

Nottingham Advocacy Group was one of the first established in 1986. The movement was towards Survivors speaking out, having a voice and challenging false conceptions perpetuated through mythology and ignorance.

A forward thinking psychiatrist and his client – Dr. Anthony Clare, St. Patrick’s Hospital, Dublin and Spike Milligan, Writer, Comedian with a Manic Depression diagnosis, worked in conjunction to produce a book to provide evidence from both sides. The comparison was drawn that both Cancer and Mental illness are pathologised but the reaction is most likely one of shame in relation to depression, even though a severe depression is life-threatening illness. (Clare, Milligan, 1993).-23-

‘Images of madness in our culture make it starkly clear that it is best avoided or denied – not just because the experience can be alarming, but because it is hard to see oneself simultaneously as ‘crazy’ and as a valid person with a liveable future’ (Sayce, 2002: 8)-24-

‘It addresses one central question: how, and on what basis, do we move beyond the physical de-segregation of hospital closure programmes towards the chance of full participation in social and economic life’. (Sayce, 2002)-25-

Why penalize people who cannot work at 100% range or even a 50% range?-26- Cordis, cordis.europa.eu/ an arm of the EU is currently researching Quality of Life perspectives.-27- Demographics may cause policy makers to change their attitudes and view people as potential (albeit limited) contributors to taxation.

Empowerment and mental health – the need for ‘Academics with Attitude’ .
This is a movement of ‘passive recipients’ to ‘active subjects’. The approach is to challenge the way we think about ‘mental illness’ mental health and what it means to live with madness. -28-(Barnes, 2001; bowl; 2001:). This is about Changing Attitudes. Mind in the UK run successful campaigns like 1 in 4, with descriptive footage of a severely depressed person. These are areas that need consideration. Essential is the use of the internet and system of email both for self-knowledge and innovative type work consistent with ‘diagnosis’.

Points to realistically consider:
Integration implies the individual will fit in with the system
The person has to change. Inclusion means that system itself will develop self-criticism; acknowledge the way in which it excludes and denies access; and dismantle barriers (Shakespeare 1997 in Sayce 31). -29- Anxiety – Valium, Librium – the wonder drugs-30- of the 1960’s are addictive. Consultants are afraid of insurance actions so are much more controlled in what they prescribe. There is no alternative now for the patient with anxiety i.e. except cigarettes/alcohol. Public policy is to prevent smoking in public places. Both cigarettes and tranquilizers are being restricted at the same time. This has implications for increased intake of alcohol. Mental illness also must be described as a physical illness. There is a need to have the service user as a stakeholder in policy making.-31-

Power of Language – Control
‘Language is itself a site of struggle and one of the purposes of user or survivor movements is to reclaim the right to define and name their own experiences’.-32-

Perspective
‘The emphasis on science is important. First it implies that the origin of mental illness and the role of intervention can be studied using the methods of observation and logical inference that form the basis of natural science. As such it is based on ‘fact’, not value, and its definition is seen as independent of Culture or social context.-33- This has both a political and organizational implications. It provides justification for the separation of medicine as a discipline and the retention of power over defining and treating mental illness outside political and popular control……Medicine has a non precise definition .

Reduction of stigma and discrimination is starting to appear high on the public policy agenda in a number of countries. The Australian Government have a major Education programme in place. The New Zealand government have adopted a programme based on studies into other marginalized groups e.g. HIV/Aids.

More Enlightened approach – World Perspective
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights encompasses
civil, political, economic and cultural rights.-34-

Community care is deemed more humane than inpatient stays. Ireland, Israel, Netherlands and Spain have 80-90% of the beds in psychiatric hospitals, France, Germany and Japan have 60-75% occupancy in psychiatric hospitals. The difference is found in Australia, Canada and the USA at 40%. (World Health Organisation page 17)

Amnesty International Ireland www.amnesty.ie/mentalhealth. Sociologically challenges Ireland’s treatment of the mentally ill. (The News on mental health issues from around the world) reports:-)

‘The support for children with, or at risk of mental health from successive Irish governments has not been adequate. The Amnesty publication, Mental Health – the Neglected Quarter, has as its objectives to increase awareness that children’s mental health is a human rights issue, to place this fact firmly before Government, and to lobby much needed reform in Government policy, practice and legislation (Sean Love, Director of Amnesty’s Irish Section).-35-

Gender issues/cultural issues – social factors:
Mental illness must be about multi-disciplinary teams. Psychiatrists opened up to the inclusion of psychology over the past 20 years and it is stated that if trigger events can be limited in a person susceptible to mental illness, and particularly after one event only, it is probable that they will avoid major mental health issues (Aware lecture 2003).www.aware.ie.  75% of those who commit suicide are men.-36- Black men have above average admittance in to psychiatric hospital in the UK and also to high security areas. Most divorces and separations are started by women and fathers tend to lose contact with their children. There is growing evidence that unemployment has an impact on mental. These are social issues impacting on family structure and society: http//www.mind.org/Information/Factsheets/Men/.

THE WAY FORWARD (Denial, Stigma, Shame, Education, Multi-disciplinary teams, Respect for difference)

Education is core to understanding and change.
‘The traditional conceptual framework in the subject is that of functionalism, and derives primarily from the writings of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. The functionalist approach, as Durkheim used it, is to seek for the social function performed by an institution; that is for the part played by the institution in the promotion and maintenance of social cohesion and social unity’. (page etc).

Durkheim referred to the ‘socialization of the young generation’. He sought to imbibe the young generation with values and certain intellectual and physical skills.-37-

The Bright Futures Initiative –
In 1997, the Mental Health Organisation in the UK undertook a major study into the mental health of children and young people. They reviewed the requirements for the emotional and healthy development of children. The 1999 reports Bright Futures was published. Factors that cause children to be susceptible include poverty, poor housing, parental conflict, parental psychiatric problems and abuse.-38- It acknowledges the importance of early intervention. Other reports include The Mental Health of Young Offenders, August 2002 and the Mental Health of Looked After Children, August 2002. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=PIBF -39-

Dr. Fernandez (Amnesty Member),-40- states the need to distinguish between ‘’mental health problems’’ induced by homelessness and ‘’mental illness’’ that may be a factor in becoming or remaining homeless (Amnesty International, 2003: 17). Psychiatric and rehabilitative services but with limited funding are provided at St. Brendan’s Psychiatric Hospital. The main objective is to ‘preserve and regain social function’. The separation from the rest of society in large institutions only ensures exclusion.-41-

IRELAND – Equality and the system of education are formally challenged. It is not inclusive. Is there a link to Mental Illness! Is the scope of the curriculum broad enough?

4500 are now hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals in Ireland. This has reduced from over 21,000 in 1958. By the 1980’s, institutions were costing large sums of money and government policy sought alternatives. Market forces determined the 1980’s de-institutionalisation policies.-42- In the year 2000, admissions were over 20,000 however the issue to be concerned about is that 70% of these were re-admissions. This speaks volumes about the recurrent nature.-43- Dr. Kennedy from Central Mental Hospital in a presentation made a point of the differentiation between those problems that were social i.e. over 80% and those that were psychiatric.-44-

‘To speak of the unspeakable is the beginning of action’ (Millett, 1994)-45-
Who is willing to listen, to hear, to activate change? The Irish psychiatric policy is based on the consumer model and thus adopted by the social movement organizations e.g. Aware and Schizophrenia Ireland. The approach is Top-Down as distinct from user-led action.

‘It is possible to propose a theoretical framework which moves the sociological perspective on from limitations inherent in other sociological traditions within the sociology of health and illness literature, such as psychiatry as a social system (Foucault 1965), or the deviance or the Marxian approaches of Scheff (1999 or Scull (1979 respectively‘ (Speed, E, 2002, 64).  Irish peculiarities mean the model requires adaptation.

Schizophrenia Ireland was set up in 1981. http://www.sirl.ie/other/repository_docs/13.pdf -46- Aware, the voluntary organization was established in 1985.  Aware Ireland, Sanewww.sane.org.uk in the UK and NAMI https://www.nami.org/ in America support the biological basis of mental ‘illness’. Aware is involved in the ‘promotion of research into biological, psychological and social aspects of Depression’ (Aware, 2001).-47- The Minister of Health has put in place an appointed study group to review analytically psychiatric services and community based service (Foreward iii) is now in place.

‘There has been a lack of any concerted mental health service users’ movement within the Republic of Ireland. Mental Health service users’ movements have a marked orientation towards strategies of empowerment and the provision of peer advocacy and support mental health service users’ (Speede, 2002). This is only acceptable if the objective is to change educational policy and introduce multi-disciplinary teams to work in the best interests of the service-user. If this occurs and with the distinct advantage of the internet, survivors can become empowered.

Research – What do we know? What does the future hold?

1997 The Trinity Horizon Project of the Centre of Women Studies covered a period of 4 years and developed a pro-type training and counseling programme for the women recovering from depression to facilitate their re-entry to the workplace. The research was carried out in collaboration with Aware, IBEC, ICTU and FAS.

The stance was from the humanitarian and social perspective. This was aimed at creating survivors. It was concerned with confronting the hidden secret associated with mental illness, dealing with the stigma that pertained and to emphasize just how under-resourced mental health services are. Funds were provided by the EU. A conference was held by the Trinity Horizon project – titled Mental Health and the Workplace: Challenges and Opportunites. It had access to transnational models – this provided a cross cultural dimension. Norbert Tietz, Director, EX+JOB in Wunstorf, Germany.

Immediately receptive is the term social firm. The firm was based on a philosophy of work and part of this was about integration of the participants with the public. Work experience included bar/restaurant work open to the public, fridge recycling plant, used children’s clothes shops, furniture shop and a music shop. The innovation of work came from the community as a whole in collaboration with the psychiatric hospital. The re-cycling dimension proved very successful. It appealed on the environmentally friendly factor. German companies must employ 6% of people with disabilities. If they choose not to pay, they must pay and fine and the money is paid into a fund for people with disabilities.

Professor McKeon, Psychiatrist of St. Patrick’s hospital and founding member of Aware reiterated that people with mental health difficulties, especially those with depression, make excellent employees. If anything, he stressed that this group with their over-anxiety to do well are exemplary employees. ‘Their exaggerated sense of responsibility and loyalty, traits which sometimes contribute to their difficulties, are positive elements for an employer. They are the first at work and have a commitment to any task they undertake. In dealing with their illness, they have already proven their ability to face and overcome difficulties and demonstrated their tenacity and courage’ (Trinity Horizon Project, Centre for Women Studies, 2000: viii)-48-

Yet, such a daring programme proved too expensive for the NRB to undertake. The NRB was subsequently subsumed into FAS – no rehabilitative programme as per the research was in put place yet. In fact, community employment which provided a meager alternative, but an alternative form of rehabilitation is being drastically cut back by Government policy.

CONCLUSION

National Policy framework – stakeholders – Survivors. Rights based Mental Health legislation is needed. Expenditure in psychiatric services has been reduced since 1976 by 20%. Mental illness is about social implications, coping strategies, psychological services and engaging with denial, particularly within the family context.-49- Power and control needs to be monitored.-50- Mental illness merits a consensual approach if people are to be integrated in society. Social workers need to interact with sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, educationalists, and most important in line with the wisdom of Carl Jung, Psychiatrist, Psychologist – they must involve the patient. -51-The Trinity Horizon Research proved too costly an approach but a new direction and approach is in place the National Flexi-Work Partnership Work-Life Balance Project

Comte named a new dimension called sociology; Durkheim elaborated and defined society as an integrated whole; Weber, shared Durkheim’s interest in religions and structure but also was concerned with ideals; and Simmel spoke of the ‘Stranger’. The intervening years saw institutionalization, medicalisation, of people who are ‘Different’. Why should an idealist be different, there might be a latent talent, that is inhibited by structure yet innovation lies there untapped. The challenge rests with Education and incorporation of a broader syllabus, to the Universities to take in hand those non-conformists and educate them and add the dimension to their education,-52- and the education of other students. People are mental health survivors but they must be given a chance. Denial, stigma, shame, must be removed and if it takes the conflict of referring to a person as socially deviant, for the reaction to come – ‘but no you are not in horror’. This is the step forward to dealing with denial. This is reality brought about by fear that no-one cares to acknowledge – hence the suicides are dismissed in shame, in silence, in fear. The medical profession live in fear that they too ‘will break the threshold’ that applies to every human being. This can be intuitively sensed from them. Sociologists need to take stock of the heritage of their founding fathers – perhaps it is time not to seek the credibility of being totally scientific and consider a more humanistic, open, consensual and interactive approach and work within multi-disciplinary teams with the objective of improving society.-53-

My parting comment is about Suicide. Dr. Kelly, (Iraq war 2003) leading scientist in search of nuclear arms in Iraq had the choice to conform to the status quo – to have his knuckles wrapped. He was an individual, deliberated, he knew the outcome if he conformed. Perhaps the issue is – could he have lived with his conscience? Durkheim reviewed suicide in this context. Yet our society does not see that people differ, a ‘Stranger’, -54-holding intuitive sentiments similar to what Shakespeare wrote in Hamlet ‘there is something rotten in the State of Denmark.

March 2015-Contextualised over a decade:  Deviance is deviance surely not as defined by mental health.  The shocking murder of Elaine O’Hara by a man who was socially deviant and so arrogant that he believed he could not be convicted and who was not going to use the defence of Insanity.
Dwyer did not plead insanity. He is found guilty of Murder. He preyed on a vulnerable woman called Elaine O’Hara who had been admitted to Ireland’s most elite psychiatric hospital, St Edmundsbury, on 14 occasions, under the most eminent of psychiatrists including Dr Anthony Clare. The paradox, the person with a mental illness the victim of society’s inability to provide for her mental health need and the murderer, the narcissist, the psychopath, devoid of conscience who saw vulnerable women as objects for his gratification. The question is will people abuse the term mental health and include him as mentally ill. I sincerely hope not. This social deviance stands apart from what mental illness is about. Again I say lets use the term Manic Depression again instead of the sanitised Bipolar. The manic applies to the high but also to the low.


Endnotes

1 An act to provide the involuntary admission to approved centres of persons suffering from mental disorders, to provide for the involuntary admission of such persons and, for the those purposes, to provide for the establishment of a Mental Health Commission and the appointment of Mental Health Commission tribunals and an Inspector of Mental Health Services, to repeal in part the Mental Treatment Act 1945 and to provide for related matters. “Mental Illness” means a state of mind of a person which affects the person’s thinking, perceiving, emotion and judgement and which seriously impairs the mental functions of the person to the extent that he or she requires care and medical treatment in his or her own interest or in the interest of other persons (Mental Health Act 2001)(return)
2 Distribution of wellness and illness throughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
3 Western medicine: science puts forward the belief that the body is separate from the mind and spirit (return)
4 Etiology is about identifying causes for each disease and scourcing cures. A machine capable of repair is the metaphor (return)
5 Exhibitions of inmates would be held and people paid to see those deemed ‘Mad’ (return)
6 Certain earlier sociologists particularly Durkheim and Weber, who carried out considerable research into different religions, linked it closely with the regimented system of values and rules relating to societies (return)
7 It was confinement of the debauched; the spendthrift fathers; prodigal sons; blasphemers, men who “seek to undo themselves”, libertines….One tenth of all the arrests were in Paris for the Hospital General concern “the insane”< “demented” men< individuals of “wandering mind” and persons who have become “completely mad” Foucault, 1967). No mention of alcohol or drugs. (return)
8 Lord Byron: Van Gogh; Churchill; Don Quioxte; Goya personalised mood distortion to black periods. Churchill referred to “Black Dog”. Aware St Patrick’s Hospital run a website titled “Black Dog” (return)
9 ‘Fear of fear refers to the anticipation of anxiety and thoughts that the mental and physical symptoms of anxiety will lead to worse consequences – a thought that in turn generates more anxiety. For example, mounting feelings of anxiety often make the patient anticipate that he or she will lose control and behave in a dis-inhibited way, or even become insane; while rapid heart action may lead the patient to expect a cardiac arrest or coronary thrombosis (Mathews A, Gelder M, Johnston D, 1981:5) (return)
10 Normal personality: how to define it? Perhaps – efficient self perception, realistic self-esteem and acceptance; voluntary control over behaviour; a true perception of the world; sustaining relationships and giving affection; self direction and productivity (Social psychology notes 2nd yr Business Economics and Social Studies Trinity notes (return)
11 Having been institutionalised and detache from society on numerous occasions, you are the outsider looking in (personal comment). Some explanations of psychosis use these exact words’ (return)
12 The name ‘Sociology’ was invented by Auguste Comete (1798-1857) – Philosophy (Positivism) (return)
13 Robert Merton sought to explain deviant behaviour in terms of social structure. He puts forward the idea that all forms of deviant behaviour ‘from differentials in the access to the success goals of a society by legitimate means….Deviance thus occurs as a result of discrepancy between the aspirations which society has socialised into its members and the way that society has provided for realising such aspirations. Merton uses the Durkheimian concept of anomie to refer to such a situation’. This reflects the goal oriented, materialistic strain in America (return)
14 Malfunction appears to determine deviance. ‘Agoraphobia is illness because one should not be afraid of open spaces. Homosexuality is illness because heterosexuality is the social norm. Divorce is illness because it signals failure of marriage….all these and many more have been said to be signs of mental illness (Berger 1963:6) (return)
15 It was then and still is my belief that any group of persons – prisoners, primitives, pilots, or patients – develop a life of their own that becomes meaningful, reasonable and normal once you get close to it, and that a good way to learn about any of these worlds is to submit oneself in the company of the members to the daily round of petty contingencies to which they are subject (Goffman) (return)
16 Mental illness/mood disorder is about lapses to weakness in moral and physical health – this inherent vulnerability is exploited (this includes family; employers, corporates, insurance companies, regimented bodies like education, the legal profession; the Church; non conformists too are not acceptable. Yet medical ethics was horrifically breached by Mengele with use of humans for scientific experiments (NAZI Germany) (return)
17 Victor Frankl (1962) Survivor from Auchwitz (Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Logotherapist, writer. ‘When we describe a responsible person we mean that in every area of his life he is able to meet the demands of this world’. Logotherapy concerns expanding the scope of visions (psychologically) for the patient. Here is the challenge to society. (return)
18 Comment from House of Lords UK: Quite evidently explanations for mental illness and institutionalisation were unclear to those engaged in scrutiny “As we get to know more about the complexity of the human mind, so we try to make our shades of responsibility more complext, and so I thing we get into deeper and deeper muddles Baroness Wootton of Abiger, House of Lords 1962 (return)
19 Irish 1945 Act was based on the earlier English legislation (return)
20 Examples include: Mind UK, (Aware, Grow, Irish Mental Health Advocacy in Ireland and Ireland Mental Health Association of Ireland etc) (return)
21 This was 1974. Now in the UK it is the medical profession who are linking to Humanities for medical conferences (return)
22 What about the social impact of science on man as a social creature? The most obvious is the impact of domestic gadgetry, healt-care facilities, urban and industrial structures and the ultimate threat of nuclear war (McClung Lee, 1974) (return)
23 Surprisingly I sought the implication and definition of fear in his book – there was none. Doctors have an issue with fear (return)
24 Denial is corrosive. Aware now operate a ‘Beat the Blues’ campaign in secondary schools. This is successful. Parents may have very fixed interpretations and refuse to encourage a child to engage at the expense of the child. (return)
25 This book includes several sources including the survivors together with lawyers, policy makers, activists, medical health professions. Primarily the research was completed in the US and UK in the late 1990’s. Reference is made to systems in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. (return)
26 Vincent Van Gogh. His pre-occupation was to give, not to receive financially. His paintings were sold after his death and amrketing applied to accumulate worth. The same applied to letters he wrote. He was socially oriented. (return)
27 Presently, the Centre for Women Studies in Trinity College Dublin are carrying out research which is part of the Equal Community Initiative and the European Social Fund. It involves a mental health advisory committee. University of Dublin; Aware: Age Action; IBEC; Congress of Trade Unions; FAS and mental health survivors will convene over the next two years. The June meeting was a bilateral meeting: Working party of employers and the Mental Health Advisory group including mental health survivors. The focus is National Flexi work – Work Life Balance. (return)
28 Marian Barnes is a member of National Health Action Zone evaluation team focusing on community involvement. (return)
29 ‘People who are seriously disadvantaged in society rarely have just single problems – they have multiple interlocking problems. They do not compete on a level playing field. Empowerment must address all their problems together if it is to be meaningful’. (Davy, 1999, 37) (return)
30 Drugs have side affects; muscle wastage ensures body weakness; anorexia/bulimia can be side affects related to mood disorder or just a manifestation of self-harm, vision, co-ordination, perception, judgment, attention deficits etc (return)
31 The Barr Tribunal (John Carthy RIP): Labeled a Manic Depressive. Somehow anxiety has been removed from language of mental health otherwise he would likely not have been shot dead by An Gardai Siochana. Anxiety drugs (Benzos) are now causing negative reporting as they are deemed too addictive and there are basically no alternatives. It could be said that the cigarettes were used to taunt John Carthy RIP, cigarettes could have calmed his anxiety. Many people go contrary to regulations and even legislation especially relating to drugs and alcohol to help them cope with stress, anxiety, depression. This is a social issue and was addressed by Dr Harry Kennedy (Psychiatrist) who has accommodation problems at the Central Mental Hospital. It is linked to crime. (return)
32 Mental Act of England and Wales defines ‘Mental Disorder’ as mental illness, personality disorder, severe mental impairment. (return)
33 Perhaps this should mean it is a component part of a spectrum that deals with those diagnosed mentally ill. A more equitable distribution of funds in terms of time input would be required. hroughout population does not fall in equal proportions (return)
34 All persons have the right to the best available mental health care, which shall be part of the health and social care system. MI Principle Amnesty Mental Health Report – the Neglected Quarter). (return)
35 Ireland ratified the UN Convention on Rights of the Child in 1992, whereby it undertook to provide a specialised mental health regime to identify, treat and protect children under 18 years or at risk of mental illness. http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pagecode=NENE (return)
36 The State in Ireland and the Church are prejudiced in regard to a person with mental illness. Denial applies. (return)
37 ‘The most sensible way to lower rates of depression and suicide is …to spread accurate information among the general public about what depression is’ Dr Fernandex (Amnesty) and St. Brendan’s Hospital; Breaking the Cycle of Depression; (Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell), The European Studies Institute. http://www.clinical-depression.co.uk (return)
38 see 37 (return)
39 17th September 2003: Psychiatrist Dr Kay Redfield Jamieson (US psychiatrist, a manic depressive) is in Ireland. New breakthrough relating to the prediction of suicide is announced. It involves hospital, an MRI scan, a Pet scan. The question is how probable it is that suicidal people will proceed through the functional medical channel. (return)
40 Dr Fernandez – Psychiatrist, St Brendan’s Psychiatric hospital, Dublin (return)
41 Serious findings: 70% re-admission each year. This strongly indicates hostile social situations: alcoholism, marital conflict, drug addicts etc. Each psychiatric admission involves a review of cocktail medications and monitoring. New drugs, new side effects, new body hostility limitations and re-adjustment. Each hospital admission means there is possibly a new psychiatric label, the range is manic depression to borderline personality disorder to manic depression. It is important to note that many doctors in psychiatric are in temporary postings and often from overseas (return)
42 Driven by former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Conservative Party) (return)
43 The social aspects, alcohol, drug abuse, family strife, lack of occupation to regain acceptance in a community. (return)
44 Irish Penal Reform Trust. Former President Ireland – Dr Mary Robinson dated December 2002 (return)
45 The Arts address the social issues. Jack Nicholson in One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest, and As Good as it Gets, drew considerable attention to institutional care and to obsessive compulsive disorder. A Beautiful Mind says so much more about Schizophrenia and brilliance. ‘Strangers’ can contribute. (return)
46 Interested patients, family members, professionals, advocates (return)
47 Similar stance by MHAI, Department of Health and Regional health boards (return) Education as distince from the workplace appealed to a number of ‘guinea pigs’ One student is accepted for her PhD in psychology; others opted for community projects in the arts. 48 (return)
49 This is real. It involves children; family court – referred to recently by a Judge as an Armageddon for children; the Catholic Church that acts without a cheecks and balances system provided by the State re people diagnosed with manic depression, schizophrenia. Proper education is essential. We are told that as many as one in four people will suffer from depression in their lifetime. (return)
50 Forfeiture of control of self, family affairs, the need of an ally as distinct from a carer to assuage the difference in personality and preent abusive use of power relations. Relatives seeking the advice from the medical team disempowers the individual. Mind – Respect campaign. Stigma reduced but inclusion is a different issue. Mental health provides no security for those within the Irish court system. The courts have power to seek discovery of documents in the context of divorce leaving the person with severe mental health problems discriminated against. The system is adversarial and damaging. The Annulment by the Catholic Church, a male dominated court again discriminates. (return)
51 Account must be taken that the stakeholder may be subject to health limitations that are greater at different times (return)
52 European social funds opened the gates in the 1990’s but a lack of understanding, prejudice, fear, shame, stigma resulted in people gaining access to Trinity College Dublin but health provisions not in place for crisis situations. Many students left without completing their degrees and more men than women (return)
53 Goya painted ‘the Madhouse’ ‘he must have experienced before that grovel of flesh in the void, that nakedness among bare walls, something related to a contemporary pathos; the symbolic tinsel that crowned the insane kings….left in view suppliant bodies, bodies vulnerable to chains and whips, which contradicted the delirium of the faces…The man in the tricorne is not made because he has stuck an old hat upon his nakedness…(Foucault 1967; 265) (return)
54 Perhaps Simmel perceived the Stranger as an individual – the outlier who would take the risk to restore an equilibrium(return)


Bibliography:

Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter. Dublin. Irish Division Report
Amnesty International, 2003. Mental Illness, the Neglected Quarter – Homelessness. Dublin. Irish Division Report
Banks, O. (ed) 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971. The Sociology of Education. B.T.
Barnes M, and Bowl R, 2001. Taking over the asylum – empowerment and mental health. Palgrave Press. Hampshire
Bursford Limited. Guildford, London, and Winchester.
Becker, H.. 1963. Outsiders Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. The Free Press. New York
Becker, P. and B. Becker 1974 (ed), Sociology: A Biographical Approach. Penguin: USA
Barnes n, and r bowl, Taking over the Asylum Empowerment and Mental Health: London:. Palgrave
Centre for Women Studies, 2003. National Flexi-Work Partnership Work-Life Balance Project. Dublin. University of Dublin.
Clare A, and Milligan, (ed) 1989, 1993. Depression and How to Survive it. London. Ebury Press.
Cohen, S. 2001. .States of Denial Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity press in association with Blackwell Publishing
Crossley, N. 2002. Making Sense of Social Movements. London: Open University press
Foucault, M. 1967. Madness and Civilisation. London: Ruthledge Publishers
Goffman, E. 1966, 1968, 1987, 1991. Asylums. London: Penquin.
Goffman, E. 1963, 1968, 1990 Stigma – Notes on the Management of Spoilt Identity. New Jersey: Penquin
Hunt, P, 1966. Stigma – The experience of Disabilility. Dublin. Geoffrey Chapman and Co.
Mathews, A and Gelder, M, and Johnston, D 1981 Agoraphobia Nature and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press
Millett, K. 1994. The Politics of Cruelty. An Essay on the Literature of Political Imprisonment. New York and London. W.W. Norton and Co.
McClung Lee, A, 1973. Toward Humanist Sociology. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Putnam, Robert D. Bowling Alone – The collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Touchstone.
Sayce, L. 2000. Fron Psychiatric Patient to Citizen – Overturn discrimination and Social Exlusion). London. Palgrave.


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Aphantasia post Traumatic Brain Injury; added to being Bipolar with entrenched anxieties. “The People without a Mind’s Eye” ie Living without mental imagery. For me, I had this and have tried for nearly 30 years now to understand what happened within my brain resulting from a fractured skull that changed me significantly from the person I was, who was emotional and had a vivid imagination.

This explains so much but most importantly why my rehabilitation is so dependent on the computer, social media, reading and of course sleeping. A dark mind harbouring a fear that once upon time you were a dreamer is deeply disturbed unless their are constant prompts.

2017 I was diagnosed with breast cancer. I knew I would not recall so I decided I would write a book and I did and it was then I became aware of Professor Zeman, University of Exeter and the condition known as Aphantasia. It explained so much. I hope this may be of interest to others especially in the case of traumatic brain injury, possibly stroke or other memory related conditions that result in a loss of the ability to visualise.

The Aphantasia Network: https://aphantasia.com/vviq/

Close your Eyes and imagine a beach, water, sand….et al. Not possible for some.

http://addspeaker.net/adhd-can-aphantasia-supercharge-your-gut-feeling/

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“Legislator in New York is introducing a law that would tax companies for the revenue they earn on data…..” Ireland: We host and give exceptionally favourable corporate tax rates to Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and others who made vast profits especially for their “owners”; and we must add, in COVID-19 2020 Pandemic Year. We too give so much of our personal data for free to these Tech Magnets who will use it to earn vast sums of capital going forward. “Data” is the new oil or gold. They know it but the truth is so do we? Let us start now by being active and seeking a value to be paid for our content and this should include Twitter content also. The article below is published in Fast Company. I often wonder what the value of my content would be if it entered the market arena and had a financial value. We were basically conned into giving up our data for free and now we are addicted especially to the smartphones and computers; it is the dopamine hit that creates the addiction.

  • 05-12-21
  • 7:00 am

A NY law would tax Facebook, Google, and other companies for using your personal data

A legislator in New York is introducing a law that would tax companies for the revenue they earn on consumer data, part of a wave of similar legislation.

[Source images: artisteer/iStock; Julien Maculan/Unsplash]

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States are broaching a new way to incentivize companies to keep data private—a sales tax. The latest effort comes from New York State Senator Andrew Gounardes, who has introduced the Data Economy Labor Compensation and Accountability Act in collaboration with Brooklyn Borough President Eric Adams. The proposal would enact the equivalent of a 2% tax on annual receipts earned off of the data of New York residents.

“Data is here and is being used and commoditized and commercialized in ways that we as laypeople don’t fully understand,” Gounardes says, noting that he subscribes to the idea that data is a new form of labor ** and that people are not being fairly compensated. This law is trying to fix that problem. “We’re trying to compensate people at large,” he says.

If this legislation is passed, it could generate hundreds of millions of dollars in annual revenue for the state. Gounardes says the earnings would be put toward educational and workforce programs, including funding for STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and math) education in public schools. It would also go toward workforce retraining courses and digital literacy programs.

The rule would apply to any company that derives profit from controlling or processing personal data, including Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, among many others. New companies, erected within the last three years, will be temporarily exempt from the rule, and those with less than $5 million in revenue will be able to evade it altogether.advertisement

** Abstract

In the digital economy, user data is typically treated as capital created by corporations observing willing individuals. This neglects users’ role in creating data, reducing incentives for users, distributing the gains from the data economy unequally and stoking fears of automation. Instead treating data (at least partially) as labor could help resolve these issues and restore a functioning market for user contributions, but may run against the near-term interests of dominant data monopsonists who have benefited from data being treated as ‘free’. Countervailing power, in the form of competition, a data labor movement and/or thoughtful regulation could help restore balance.

Keywords: data economy, big data, data as labor, artificial intelligence, machine learning, monopsony power

JEL Classification: C55, D40, J42, L96

Suggested Citation: Arrieta Ibarra, Imanol and Goff, Leonard and Jiménez Hernández, Diego and Lanier, Jaron and Weyl, Eric Glen, Should We Treat Data as Labor? Moving Beyond ‘Free’ (December 27, 2017). American Economic Association Papers & Proceedings, Vol. 1, No. 1, Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3093683

EUROPE EU in contrast to US and China

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Grangegorman Histories launches Grangegorman Lives

Our new series will explore the lives of people who lived, worked, visited, travelled to and through Grangegorman.

Source: Grangegorman Histories launches Grangegorman Lives

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Far and Wide the COVID-19 virus is spreading. Baillieu Islands Northern Brazil have been ravaged by the virus and teams in boats carrying Astra Zeneca (Oxford) are ensuring that the virus is contained even in such a remote location. Check out John Hopkins in the following link.

https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

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